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Unformatted text preview: CCJS105: Test One Study Guide 03:15 Introduction to Criminology Terms and Concepts Politicization: The politicization of science is the manipulation of science for political gain. It occurs when government, business, or advocacy groups use legal or economic pressure to influence the findings of scientific research or the way it is disseminated, reported or interpreted. Criminology: The systematic study of (1) the processes of making law, (2) the breaking of law (pondering why people break the law), and (3) the reaction to the breaking of law. Correlation and Causation: Just because two items are consistently related (correlated) does not imply a casual connection Example: my having an umbrella handy every time it rains doesn’t mean I control the weather. Spuriousness: not being what it purports to be must be eliminated Are their elements outside of the one you are pointing to that are the actual cause. Ideology: basic beliefs or values, usually formed in early life, and through which people filter information. Conflict and Consensus Theory- Conflict: A belief that the law disproportionately reflects the interest of a powerful minority within society. Consensus: A belief that the law reflects the interest of most people in society more or less evenly. The Powerful vs. The Masses The Dark Figure of Crime: the unknown and unknowable tally. Example: Tallying the number of crimes in regards to prison population Total Crime Official Reports Victim Reports Ecological Fallacy: An ecological fallacy is a logical fallacy in the interpretation of statistical data in an ecological study, whereby inferences about the nature of specific individuals are based solely upon aggregate statistics collected for the group to which those individuals belong. 1 Example: Stereotypes Index Crimes: Part I of the UCR, consist of crimes known to the police, including both crimes the police themselves discover and crimes reported by citizens. Eight crimes comprise the Part I Index Crimes- Criminal Homicide Forcible Rape Robbery Aggravated Assault Burglary Larceny-Theft Motor vehicle theft Arson Bounding as a way of addressing memory decay and telescoping (threaten the validity of a self-report)- Example: NCVS- This procedure produces a panel design that allows the same group of people to be queried over a period of time. It also provides the opportunity to control for the problem of telescoping by comparing the most recently reported victimizations with responses from the previous interview. Is criminology a science? Two essential components of science are its theoretical and its methodological...
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- Fall '11