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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 05 - Communicating and Interpreting Accounting Information Chapter 05 Communicating and Interpreting Accounting Information ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS 1. The primary responsibility for the accuracy of the financial records and conformance with Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) of the information in the financial statements rests with management, normally the CEO and CFO. Independent auditors or CPAs are responsible for conducting an examination of the statements in accordance with Generally Accepted Auditing Standards (for private companies) and PCAOB Auditing Standards (for public companies), and based on that examination, attesting to the fairness of the financial presentations in accordance with GAAP. Both management and the auditors assume a financial responsibility to users of the statements. 2. Financial analysts , who normally work for brokerage and investment banking houses, mutual funds, and investment advisory services, gather extensive financial and nonfinancial information about a company, on which they base forecasts and stock purchase and sale recommendations. Private investors include individuals who purchase shares in companies, often on the basis of recommendations from financial analysts. Institutional investors are managers of pension, mutual, endowment, and other funds that invest on behalf of others. 3. Information services provide a wide variety of financial and nonfinancial information to analysts and investors, often on-line or on CD-ROM. These services are normally the first source where important financial information such as quarterly earnings announcements are available. 4. To be useful, information must be relevant; that is, it must be timely and have predictive and/or feedback value. However, if the information is not reliable (accurate, unbiased, and verifiable) it will not be relied upon, and thus will not be useful. 5. a. Income statement--Accrual basis required by GAAP. b. Balance sheet--Accrual basis required by GAAP. c. Statement of cash flows--Cash basis required by GAAP. 5-1 Chapter 05 - Communicating and Interpreting Accounting Information 6. Private companies normally issue quarterly and annual reports, both of which are normally simple photocopied reports. The quarterly reports normally present unaudited summary income statement and balance sheet information. The annual reports include the four basic financial statements, related notes, and the auditors opinion if the statements are audited. 7. Public companies issue quarterly press releases, quarterly reports, and annual reports to shareholders and Forms 10-Q (quarterly reports), 10-K (annual reports), and 8-K (special events) reports to the SEC. Press releases include a summary of the quarterly report information and are the first announcement of quarterly financial information. The quarterly reports normally present unaudited summary income statement and balance sheet information along with an abbreviated management discussion and analysis. discussion and analysis....
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