[E]Article-Humanistic counseling process outcomes & research.pdf - Received Revised Accepted DOI 10.1002\/j.2161-1939.2014.00058.x Humanistic

[E]Article-Humanistic counseling process outcomes & research.pdf

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218 Journal of HUMANISTIC COUNSELING October 2014 Volume 53 © 2014 by the American Counseling Association. All rights reserved. Received 06/27/13 Revised 11/25/13 Accepted 12/21/13 DOI: 10.1002/j.2161-1939.2014.00058.x Humanistic Counseling Process, Outcomes, and Research Mark B. Scholl, Dee C. Ray, and Peggy Brady-Amoon    Humanistic approaches to counseling are particularly concerned with process, emphasiz- ing the person of the client, the person of the counselor, and the therapeutic relationship. Process and outcomes in humanistic interventions are highly related and complementary aspects of counseling. Counseling outcomes may include client outcomes as well as research outcomes. Whereas client outcomes are focused on the specific needs of clients, research outcomes tend to focus on generalizable results. When considering process, outcomes, or research, the humanistic counselor seeks to integrate the principles of humanism into all aspects of practice.    Modern humanism encompasses an abundance of diverse theories and approaches (Scholl, McGowan, & Hansen, 2012). These theories and approaches, including person-centered therapy, Gestalt therapy, both the American and European existentialist perspectives, and assorted creative therapies, are connected by their respect for each person as a whole, not reducible to any or all parts of him- or herself (Davidson, 2000; Hansen, 2012). Furthermore, humanistic approaches share an emphasis on our subjective experiencing of ourselves, our relation- ships, and our environment (Scholl et al., 2012). This article offers an examination of three complementary, interrelated, and recursive aspects of humanistic counseling—process, outcomes, and research—each of which will be examined individually and in conjunction with the others. As previously mentioned, humanism entails an antireductionistic stance and the belief that individuals are best understood when viewed as whole beings (Davidson, 2000). Several additional principles of humanism logically follow from this fundamental principle of irreducibility. These include the principles of individualism, valuing subjective experiences, and respect for the dignity of the individual. Taken collectively, these four principles inform Mark B. Scholl, Department of Higher, Adult, and Counselor Education, East Carolina University; Dee C. Ray, Department of Counseling and Higher Education, University of North Texas; Peggy Brady- Amoon, Department of Professional Psychology and Family Therapy, Seton Hall University. Mark B. Scholl is now at Department of Counseling, Wake Forest University. Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Mark B. Scholl, Department of Counseling, Wake Forest University, PO Box 7406, Winston-Salem, NC 27109 (e-mail: [email protected]).
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Journal of HUMANISTIC COUNSELING October 2014 Volume 53 219 Bohart’s (2003) assertion that humanistic practices are “people responsive” or highlight “relating to human beings in growth-producing ways” (p. 146). However, it is important to recognize that at times the principle of ir-
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