ch1_cautructinhthevasuhinhthanh - 4 Ch ng 1 Cu trc tinh th...

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Unformatted text preview: 4 Ch ng 1 Cu trc tinh th v s hnh thnh 1.1. Cu to v li n k t nguy n t nguy n t = h t nh n + electron = (proton + ntron) + electron ntron khng mang i n proton mang i n d ng = i n t ch ca electron ng/t trung ho Kh i ni m c b n v c u t o nguy n t C u h nh electron (electron configuration) ch r: s l ng t ch nh ( 1 , 2, 3...), k hi u ph n lp (s, p, d...), s l ng electron thuc ph n lp (s m tr n k hi u ph n lp). V d: Cu c Z = 29 c c u h nh electron l 1 s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 3d 1 4s 1 qua bi t c s electron ngo i cng ( y l 1 , ha tr 1 ). Cc kim lo i chuy n ti p: Fe c Z = 26: 1 s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 3d 6 4s 2 1.1.2. Cc dng li n k t nguy n t trong cht rn Cc lo i v t li u kh c nhau c th tn t i c c d ng li n k t ri ng. S kh c nhau ca c c d ng li n k t cng l nguy n nh n t o n n c c t nh ch t kh c nhau. a. Li n kt ng ha tr a. Li n kt ng ha tr a. Li n kt ng ha tr a. Li n kt ng ha tr L li n k t ca hai (hoA c nhi u) nguy n t gp chung nhau mt s electron ha tr c t m electron lp ngo i cng. C th l y ba v d nh sau (h nh 1 . 1 ). Clo c Z= 1 7 ( 1 s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 5 ), c 7e lp ngo i cng, 2 nguy n t Cl mi nguy n t gp chung 1 electron lp ngo i cng 8e (h nh 1 . 1 a). + a) b) c) H nh 1 . 1 . S biu din lin kt ng ha tr a. phn t clo, b. giecmani (Ge), c. mtan (CH 4 ) Giecmani (Ge, z=32) c 4e lp ngo i cng (4s 2 , 4p 2 ), 4 nguy n t gp chung (h nh 1 . 1 b). Li n k t gia c c nguy n t cng lo i (t IVB VIIB nh Cl, Ge) l lo i ng cc, cn gia cc nguy n t kh c lo i nh CH 4 l lo i d cc. M tan (CH 4 ). Cacbon (z=6), c 4e lp ngo i cng v 4 nguy n t H mi nguy n t n y gp cho n 1 electron l m cho lp electron ngo i cng 8 (h nh 1 . 1 c). b. Li n k t ion b. Li n k t ion b. Li n k t ion b. Li n k t ion KL nhm IB (Cu, g, u), IIB (Zn, Cd, Hg) trao e c c nguy n t : VIB (O, S...), VIIB (H, F, Cl, Br, I). C c xit kim lo i nh l 2 O 3 , MgO, CaO, Fe 3 O 4 , NiO... c xu th m nh vi t o li n k t ion. Li n k t ion c ng m nh khi lp ngo i cng (cho) cha t e, nhn n m c ng g n h t nh n. Li n k t khng nh h ng ( nh h ng th x c su t li n k t ln nh t theo ph ng ni t m c c nguy n t), v t li u c li n k t ion th t nh gin cao....
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ch1_cautructinhthevasuhinhthanh - 4 Ch ng 1 Cu trc tinh th...

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