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Chapter 19 Wrap Up

Chapter 19 Wrap Up - Chapter 19 Wrap Up I Changes in...

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Chapter 19 Wrap Up I. Changes in Business a. From small crafts to large companies i. What had once been the Union had changed a great deal by the 1870s and 1880. The massive industrial growth meant that larger factories manufactured goods – and the way people related to work and time itself changed. These changes had begun with the first textile factories that were established in the 1820s, but with new technology cities began producing steel in massive quantities, they produced clothing in factories, phonographs, etc. etc. In many respects the shift from skilled craftsman to unskilled factory worker meant that skilled workers were being replaced by people that worked machines. It frustrated many – but also created a huge job market for immigrations ii. In previous times an owner of a small factory would probably be a skilled craftsman himself, working alongside his employees. This changed as well, as absentee owners with massive fortunes left the day to day work to others. It did also create new jobs in middle management, something that native born white workers could look forward to. iii. New Administrative Bureaucracy – Railroads 1. became a great example of this new bureaucracy with accountants, ticket takers, schedulers, etc. finding new middle class jobs. 2. Your text notes that Railroads also imposed a uniform time system on the nation – we can thank them for our time zones II. Middle Class a. The emerging middle class sought to emulate the rich as much as possible, and just as the rich went about engaging in “conspicuous consumption” the middle class sought to do the same i. This new middle class was a little different than previous generations – they included these new middle managers in addition to the lawyers, doctors and clergy that had often made up the middle class of the past. The middle class certainly had a father who worked away from home, most often in a white collar job, and the wife stayed at home and took care of the family. Most middle class in America during the gilded age could afford at least one servant, and this allowed women opportunities for charitable work. They would be very important in helping the progressive movement. ii. The middle class also began moving out the cities because they were too dirty, crime-ridden and disease prone. With the advent of street cars and trolleys they could easily afford to commute to work, so the first suburbs were built. Women were supposed to make their houses oases of peace and nurturing for their husbands and families.
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