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Experiment #7 intro - order to detect when the correct...

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Introduction Over the years acids and bases have had many different theories pertaining to definition. One of these theories is the Bronsted-Lowry theory, this theory states that an acid is the proton(H + ion) donor and the base is the proton accepter. From the reaction between the acid and the base there is a conjugate acid and a conjugate base that are formed. The conjugate acid is the base but after the reaction happens when it accepts a proton from the acid and a conjugate base is the acid from the initial reaction without its donated proton. Another theory on acids and bases is the Arrhenius theory, this theory states that the acids give and H + in water but on the other hand bases give and OH - in water. Due to the fact that acids and bases are opposites of one another you can assume that they could possibly cancel one another if mixed in the proper ratio, this is otherwise known as neutralization. This will be exactly what we are trying to do in this lab; we will attempt to add the stoichiometric amount of base to an acid in hopes to neutralize the solution. In
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Unformatted text preview: order to detect when the correct amount of base is added we will use and indicator, which will change the color of the solution once it approaches the point where the reaction is done, which is known as the endpoint of the reaction. As a group we will be performing a titration, which is determining the concentration of an unknown acid or base. In our lab we are starting with the unknown acid, which will be vinegar and attempt to determine its concentration. This can either be done with an indicator or and pH pen, in our lab we will be using both. When performing the lab you must know around what the equivalence point is. The equivalence point is the pH at which the acid is neutralized. You can also use back titration to determine the concentration of reactants and this is done by, adding excess volume of another reactant that has a known concentration. Back titration is typically used when the reactants from the reaction are too weak to give a valid reaction....
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