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Unformatted text preview: STUDY POINTS Master the terminology: there is a list of key terms at the end of each chapter. Be familiar with the four fields of anthropology (physical anthropology, archaeology, cultural anthropology, linguistics), and what they encompass Four Fields of Anthropology: 1) Physical anthropology study of how biological processes apply to people; humans as a biological species 2) Archaeology Studies the past of cultural systems Uses physical evidence of past cultures to find out about their lifestyles including food remains, tools, temples, burials, and even remains of cities Job of archaeologists is to find, recover, and interpret the remains 3) Cultural anthropology Seeks to understand the nature of culture and its variety among different societies Culture = the entirety of those things people have invented or developed and have passed down to later generations; the way in which we survive i.e. origin myth of the Yanomamo is based on work of cultural anthropologists study living societies and cultures of the past attempts to describe various cultural systems and explain the variations in them search for processes that account for change in culture over time 4) Linguistics focuses on issues such as evolution of speech, the historical connections between the many and various human language systems, and the ways in which language affects our perceptions of the world Know the traits that, together, make humans both physically and behaviorally distinctive in the animal world: bipedalism, binocular vision, etc. Traits that Distinguish Humans: Bipedalism ability to walk on two feet; allowed our earliest ancestors to move efficiently over great distances and carry things at the same time; the most distinguishing feature because it was the first Binocular vision other animals also have it, but it gives us an advantage Opposable digit (the thumb) power grip allows us to holds objects tightly and precision grip allows us to hold things delicately Dentition 2 incisors, 1 canine, 2 premolars, and 3 molars, parabola shaped jaws Brain capacity allowed early hominids to improve on tool making, devise schemes for social organization and cooperation, and think up answers to the problems of survival Tool use only we make tools for later use or for purpose of making other tools Social other animals are, but we are much more social Know the traits of language and how humans have elevated this kind of symbolic communication Language a communicative system of sounds and words transmitting a message that elicits a response from a fellow organism not just communication other animals gesture, call, and use body language that all involve grammar generative the ability to create infinite sentences and words that elicit responses from other animals involves meaning symbolic, representative, arbitrary, generative, deals with placement (i.e. we can talk about different times and places different than the placement (i....
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