Test 2 Study Guide - Test 2 Study Guide 1 Fossils Time...

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Test 2 Study Guide 1) Fossils - Time frames (not geological periods) - Distinctive anatomical characteristics - Where they generally occur 2) Physical Attributes of Human Evolution - Trends in brain size - Trends in bipedalism - Trends in body related to vocalization and speech 3) Cultural Attributes of Human Evolution - Evidence for diet - Tool traditions - Tool traditions with specific fossil types 4) Types of Evidence - Artifacts, sites, etc (key terms) - Interpretation - Issues causing ambiguity in fossil/archaeological record 5) How Evolutionary Process is Hypothesized to be Related to Various Hominids - Certain features of hominids adaptive - Extinction - Theories (RAO & MRE) - Notions behind emergence of analogous forms Fossils Early Hominids in Order of Evolution: 1) Ardipithecus ramidus: - 4.4 mya in Ethiopia - Foramen magnum more forward than in apes and human shaped canines 2) Australopithecus anamensis: - 4.2-3.8 mya in Lake Turkana, Kenya - Vertical canine roots, thick tooth enamel, leg bones show clear bipedalism 3) Australopithecus afarensis: - 3.9-3 mya in Ethiopia
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- Receding chin, a hint of a sagittal crest, and pointed canines with gaps 4) Australopithecus africanus: - 3-2.3 mya in South Africa - small canines, foramen magnum well underneath skull, long arms, short legs 5) Paranthropus robustus: - 2.2-1.5 mya in South Africa - Increase in cranial capacity, not as robust as P. aethiopicus , small canines, heavy jaw, and large back teeth 6) Paranthropus boisei - 2.2-1 mya in Tanzania, Kenya, and Ethiopia - “hyperrobust” features – very large jaws, back teeth, and sagittal crest Other Noteworthy “Hominids” (there is debate over whether these are actual species) Ardipithecus kadabba - 5.8-5.2 mya in Ethiopia Orrorin tugenensis - 6.2-5.6 mya in Kenya Sahelanthropus tchadensis - 7-6 mya in Chad - small canines and continuous brow ridge Paranthropus aethiopicus - 2.8-2.2 mya in Ethiopia - Broad face, large cheekbones and mandibles, and large back teeth - “Black Skull” Family: - Hominidae : the bipedal primates Genus: - Ardipithecus : the most apelike hominids - Australopithecus : small-brained, slender (gracile) hominid with mixed veggie and fruit diet - Paranthropus : small-brained, robust hominids with grassland veggie diet - Homo : large-brained and omnivorous hominids Physical Attributes of Human Evolution First Members of Homo 1) Homo habilis - 2.3-1.6 mya in Tanzania, Kenya, Ethiopia, and Southern Africa - Notable increase in brain size and more complex thought 2) Homo rudolfensis - 2.3-1.6 mya in East Turkana, Kenya - Larger body and brain size than H. habilis and lack of continuous brow ridge 3) Homo erectus - “Java Man” and “Peking Man” are two examples
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- 1.8-0.1 mya (est) in Algeria, China, Ethiopia, Israel, Italy, Java, and Morocco - Much reproductive success evident because of how widespread the fossils were - Showed greater intellect because of tools, etc found with their fossils 4) Homo ergaster - Found in Kenya; “Turkana Boy” - Some consider these the same as H. erectus - Heavy brow ridge, prognathous face, sloping forehead, elongated profile, sagittal keel, and increased cranial capacity 5)
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