Test 2 Study Guide

Test 2 Study Guide - Test 2 Study Guide 1) Fossils- Time...

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Unformatted text preview: Test 2 Study Guide 1) Fossils- Time frames (not geological periods)- Distinctive anatomical characteristics- Where they generally occur 2) Physical Attributes of Human Evolution- Trends in brain size- Trends in bipedalism- Trends in body related to vocalization and speech 3) Cultural Attributes of Human Evolution- Evidence for diet- Tool traditions- Tool traditions with specific fossil types 4) Types of Evidence- Artifacts, sites, etc (key terms)- Interpretation- Issues causing ambiguity in fossil/archaeological record 5) How Evolutionary Process is Hypothesized to be Related to Various Hominids- Certain features of hominids adaptive- Extinction- Theories (RAO & MRE)- Notions behind emergence of analogous forms Fossils Early Hominids in Order of Evolution: 1) Ardipithecus ramidus:- 4.4 mya in Ethiopia- Foramen magnum more forward than in apes and human shaped canines 2) Australopithecus anamensis:- 4.2-3.8 mya in Lake Turkana, Kenya- Vertical canine roots, thick tooth enamel, leg bones show clear bipedalism 3) Australopithecus afarensis:- 3.9-3 mya in Ethiopia- Receding chin, a hint of a sagittal crest, and pointed canines with gaps 4) Australopithecus africanus:- 3-2.3 mya in South Africa- small canines, foramen magnum well underneath skull, long arms, short legs 5) Paranthropus robustus:- 2.2-1.5 mya in South Africa- Increase in cranial capacity, not as robust as P. aethiopicus , small canines, heavy jaw, and large back teeth 6) Paranthropus boisei- 2.2-1 mya in Tanzania, Kenya, and Ethiopia- hyperrobust features very large jaws, back teeth, and sagittal crest Other Noteworthy Hominids (there is debate over whether these are actual species) Ardipithecus kadabba- 5.8-5.2 mya in Ethiopia Orrorin tugenensis- 6.2-5.6 mya in Kenya Sahelanthropus tchadensis- 7-6 mya in Chad - small canines and continuous brow ridge Paranthropus aethiopicus- 2.8-2.2 mya in Ethiopia- Broad face, large cheekbones and mandibles, and large back teeth- Black Skull Family: - Hominidae : the bipedal primates Genus:- Ardipithecus : the most apelike hominids- Australopithecus : small-brained, slender (gracile) hominid with mixed veggie and fruit diet- Paranthropus : small-brained, robust hominids with grassland veggie diet- Homo : large-brained and omnivorous hominids Physical Attributes of Human Evolution First Members of Homo 1) Homo habilis- 2.3-1.6 mya in Tanzania, Kenya, Ethiopia, and Southern Africa- Notable increase in brain size and more complex thought 2) Homo rudolfensis- 2.3-1.6 mya in East Turkana, Kenya- Larger body and brain size than H. habilis and lack of continuous brow ridge 3) Homo erectus- Java Man and Peking Man are two examples- 1.8-0.1 mya (est) in Algeria, China, Ethiopia, Israel, Italy, Java, and Morocco- Much reproductive success evident because of how widespread the fossils were- Showed greater intellect because of tools, etc found with their fossils 4) Homo ergaster- Found in Kenya; Turkana Boy...
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Test 2 Study Guide - Test 2 Study Guide 1) Fossils- Time...

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