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Chapter 26 Wrap Up

Chapter 26 Wrap Up - Chapter 26 Wrap Up America in World...

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Chapter 26 Wrap Up America in World War II I. American Foundation in Neutrality a. The 1920s “Return to Normalcy” i. After WWI many Americans wanted to return to their isolationist past ii. Kellogg-Briand Pact had theoretically produced a lasting peace b. The 1930s Depression, War not on American minds i. Congressional inquiries reported that bankers and industrialists benefited from American involvement in WWI – the American people were not interested in European affairs, and even less interested in Japanese aggression in China ii. America and other nations were busy dealing with a worldwide depression – one of the reasons why when Hitler and Mussolini seemed to be aggressive, America, Britain and France did nothing – they were preoccupied II. The Beginnings of Asian and European Aggression a. Japan and China i. Japan hoped to increase its influence over the rest of Asia – it was a small country that could use the resources of others ii. Invaded China in 1937, very brutal to the people b. Mussolini (Italy) i. Mussolini had come to power in 1922 and espoused fascism, a philosophy or system of government that is marked by stringent social and economic control, a strong, centralized government usually headed by a dictator and often a policy of belligerent nationalism c. Hitler (Germany) i. Came to power in Germany in 1933 as Germany also suffered during the depression ii. He blamed Jews for the problems and brought pride in German heritage to the people, who had been bitterly upset by the terms of the Treaty of Versailles and the lack of economic opportunity iii. Began “pump priming” – in essence pumping money into government programs and public works to create jobs iv. Head of the Nazi Party, Nazis had a policy of state control of the economy, racist nationalism, and national expansion v. Wanted to “unify” the German peoples who were scattered throughout Austria-Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Poland and other regions III. American Neutrality Tested a. Neutrality Laws passed by Congress i. To ensure that America did not get involved in a European War ii. By 1937 it became obvious that Hitler was pushing toward war – he was going against the Treaty of Versailles and annexing regions of Europe b. Germany Continues to Expand i. For the most part as Germany annexed Austria and then part of Czechoslovakia the rest of the world watched and allowed it to happen 1
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(calling it appeasement). They hoped to avoid war. ii. The Annexation of Poland was the last straw for the British – and in 1939 declared war on Germany when Hitler did so iii. Nazi-Soviet Pact 1. Hitler guaranteed that he would not attack Russia but went against this in 1941 iv. Blitzkrieg 1. lightning war tactic that Hitler used to overrun large parts of Europe 2. by the spring of 1940 only the British were left c. Cash and carry i. Cash and Carry was FDR’s way of trying to aid the British – it was selling war goods to them only if they paid cash and were able to transport
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Chapter 26 Wrap Up - Chapter 26 Wrap Up America in World...

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