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Chapter 27 Wrap Up

Chapter 27 Wrap Up - Chapter 27 Wrap Up I War Over New...

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Chapter 27 Wrap Up I. War Over – New World Order Begins a. 11 million Americans return from war, but lost their innocence and naïveté. b. The GI Bill i. In an effort to stave off a postwar depression, Congress passed the GI Bill of Rights in 1944, which allowed for free education, good loans for businesses or homes, vocational training, unemployment. To all honorably discharged vets 1. Costs the government $13 billion 2. This leads to immense growth in the economy as education increases, more homes bought and sold, etc. ii. They yearn for normal lives 1. that means family, house, car – in an atmosphere if prosperity they get this c. Work – Bye Bye Rosie i. Men return home and women expected to leave the factories 1. if they wanted to stay it was seen as a form of penis envy and the women were neurotic. They were told to refocus their lives around the home and family. ii. better paying jobs for greater diversity of Americans allowing them to earn a living wage iii. Taft-Hartley Act 1947 1. made the closed shop illegal but union shop okay. States got around it by passing “right to work” legislation a. Yalta i. This was during early 1945 when FDR, Churchill and Stalin had gotten together and planned the division of Germany into four militarized zones ii. It was clear that the big 3 (and we’ll include FR too) would determine world events b. United Nations i. Modeled after League of Nations, est. Spring 1945 to keep international balance ii. Provided a forum for international conflicts iii. Deteriorating relationship with Soviets makes other alliances very important 1. NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) – signed in 1949 by 12 nations (Denmark, US, Canada, BR, FR, Italy, Belgium, The Netherlands, Luxembourg, Denmark, Norway, Portugal and Iceland...), others join later. – armed attack against one was considered an armed attack against them all a. Countered by Soviet bloc with Warsaw Pact 2. New State of Israel 1948 with UN backing 1
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Overall things go back to “normal” on the homefront c. Power Vacuum in Asia and Africa i. because decline in European powers ii. Soviets rushing in leads to war over influence , only two major powers left in world – US and USSR d. Ideological Struggle/Cold War i. World becomes enveloped in ideological struggle, couched in terms of good and evil, capitalist/democratic/Christian vs. communist/atheist ii. Cold war defined as a struggle waged by diplomacy, propaganda and economic pressure and military intimidation – sometimes physical but then only in third world 1. preserve safety and protect what believed to be vital interests in international environment (really began before war over in July 1945) with Stalin insisting on territory and Truman conceding 2. both convinced they were morally right – saw third world as either “for us or against us” – no room for independent thought in emerging nations II. Containment a. Communist Threat i. wars of nationalism erupt throughout Africa and Asia – colonial world 1. Chinese communists win out over corrupt nationalists a. huge loss for Truman ii.
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