JWL L1 - S E C T I O N A About the fapanese Writing System...

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Unformatted text preview: S E C T I O N A About the fapanese Writing System Modern Japanese may be written horizontally, usually from left to right, or vertically, from top to bottom.1 When it is written vertically, the columns are read starting from the right. While it is possible to write any text either horizontally or vertically, traditionally the choice de- pends on the type of text. Most newspaper and magazine articles, legal documents, literary works, and Japanese-language textbooks for native speakers of Japanese are still regularly written vertically; for other texts, horizontal writing has increasingly become the preferred choice, par— ticularly for science and mathematics and foreign languages. Newer types of material, like e-mail and Web-site offerings, are written hori- zontally. Even some newer editions of Japanese dictionaries reflect the shift in printing style. The widespread use of computers for text processing is no doubt influencing these changes, although Japanese word processors do typically allow for both vertical and horizontal printing. Japanese writing includes three types of symbols, used in conven- tional combinations: (1) kanjt', characters for the most part originally borrowed from Chinese, which represent / sound + meaning/; (2) kana (incorporating kamkana and himgana), symbols developed through the simplification of kanji, which represent Japanese syllable-like sound units;2 and (3) letters of the Roman alphabet and Arabic numerals, 1On moving vehiclesw—on the sides of ships, taxicabs, etc—we can find right—to-left horizontal writing. In road signs and advertisements, we may encounter other unusual writing styles, just as we do in the writing of English in the United States, but these are not typical features of Japanese orthography. 21m fapanese: The Spoken Language (JSL), the term mom is used for these syllable-like units. 2 ' Imam [A which may occur within a text consisting otherwise of kanji and kana or in a romanized text? replacing kanji and kana. The principal difference in the appearance of kanji and kana is their complexity: while all kana symbols have very few strokes, most kanji have noticeably more. Can you tell which symbols in the following text are kanji and which are kana? For now, don’t worry about what the text means. Example 1: 9353M. Elfifi'fchf’b omniscch U E L711: This text includes six kanji (5E, 35, E, ii, %, and iii) and two punc— tuation marks (. and c.). The remaining symbols are kana. There are two kana sets (usually referred to as syllabaries): hiragana and katakana. All kana symbols in Example 1 are hiragana, identifiable by their curved strokes. The strokes of katakana symbols, also few in number, are angular. Which of the symbols in the following all-kana sample are katakana? Example 2: cor4xivrunnnaeiyeam. If we line up the hiragana symbols of Example 2 next to its katakana symbols, the contrast is striking: the flowing lines of hiragana are very different from the angular lines of katakana. Katakana: 5‘3, 4, X, 7°, l/,/1’, %, 5?, and ‘/ Hiragana: Z, 03,l1i,72i,73'3, 731,751, T“, 3“, and 2“; Now examine a few more sample texts (Examples 3, 4, and 5) and distinguish kanji, hiragana, and katakana. Example 3: ){HJDEfiB 0 75V: 5 CREW/3i 1/730 unify; y biiégqugmi beam.:aauaar.t—5—smeam<ng¢D 3111 this book Japanese words that have been borrowed into English are written ac- cording to English convention. Otherwise, JSL romanization is used throughout, but without accent marks. The simple g in jWL is equivalent to both g and g in JSL. Lemon IA ' 3 Example4 'fihilé'ji—S if :X/ufl'a‘f n”nuv% aan‘yfi $4”??? L§4fin TfilfU ‘/ DIEJ‘HJU 'l" éllJfiICDI °wefix Example5: EY’C. filillifi‘ydz—E350f3§&5fé’lblibfco Ufié‘fufiilfift MT<TE$§7v=l=—'?35“H$lilz¥3%ckfbiab3b<. $5¥CDH§ FaElfiiéfél/ < 7‘; D is} Look at Examples 3, 4, and 5 again, this time writing a single line under (or, in Example 4, on the right side of ) the katakana symbols and a double line under (beside) the hiragana symbols. The remaining sym- bols are kanji and punctuation marks. Were your answers correct? You can check them below. Example 3: X—H/E‘EE Bill}: 5 fatal/ii L730 jgaljJ .y ifiiflo:56m%%£.t—5wem5nm<6meao ‘ Example 4: %%Wé & fall} A lit 0 a \’ T ) $E§lhtll§fl§l 7 )< U 73 GDF .5. drfifl as» 44wn& m fiEm? w? ‘5' u g} a; N~i$fl- 4 ' Lemon IA Example 5: “ET. :‘r‘fiElli?‘yiFFEdEiOflhif‘EI/libfco Ufi’é‘fufiiift mT<Eéé§v#_f&_$mm9ptfbfimb<.§§2% < D $3.0 Do Exercise 1.1 in the Workbook. A reexamination of Examples 1—5 points up another striking feature of Japanese writing: the lack of spaces within sentences.4 English speakers are accustomed to analyzing texts in terms of words, which they identify as the units bounded by spaces. Written Japanese, on the other hand, has no such guide; thus there is frequent disagreement on how to divide a text into wordlike units—for example, when writing romanization. Without spaces between words how is it possible to read Japanese texts accurately? How do we know what goes with what? The conven- tionalized use of the different types of symbols provides many clues. For example, a katakana sequence in a text regularly signals a nominal,5 as does a sequence of two or more kanji. Many verbal and adjectival roots are also represented by kanji, in which case inflectional endings written in hiragana follow. Particles and all forms of the copula are also written in hiragana. More will be said about these clues for text processing as we develop reading skill. InnnduCfiontolfinakana Lessons 1 to 4 introduce katakana, the syllabary used primarily for writ- ing loanwords (i.e., words borrowed from foreign languages). Katakana is also used to set off native Japanese words. Its use thus corresponds to the use of italics in English. Katakana occurs frequently in advertise— ments; it is used to represent something strange or unusual from a lin— guistic point of view (for example, to quote foreigners’ errors in Japa— nese) ; and it is often used in writing onomatopoetic words—words that are intended to represent their meaning by their sound (example: gata- gata, representing a rattling sound). In addition, katakana is used in writing telegrams and, together with Chinese characters (kanji), in writ- ing some legal documents. Ideally, students of Japanese as a foreign language learn to read ‘ 4For younger students learning to read, spaces are sometimes inserted after phrases. 5The grammatical terminology used in this text follows that of JSL. Lamar: 1A ' 5 Japanese after gaining some knowledge of the spoken language, even if that knowledge is very limited. After all, a written language is basically a representation of the oral language. When studying reading, it is im- portant to remember the implied order: spoken then written. Such is the nature of reading any language. Most English—speaking students of Japanese begin their study of the language with some use of romanization, introduced not as a writing system but as a study aid, a reminder of the spoken language, which is being orally practiced and drilled. We will therefore introduce katakana symbols by giving their equivalence in romanization, on the assumption that students have already learned the Japanese pronunciation repre— sented by the romanized symbols. For the student who has not had such an introduction, listening to the aural representation of these symbols will be particularly important (either by hearing them read by a native speaker or by listening to a recording of them), as will reading the description of them in the introduction to fapcmese: The Spoken Lan— guage (JSL). We must always remember that the sounds of Japanese are not the same as the sounds of English, even if a few of them are similar. The major adjustment that native speakers of English must make in learning to read and write katakana is to move from an alphabetic sys- tem to a syllabic system——or, more accurately, a mom-representing sys- tem. While there are many exceptions in both English and Japanese— particularly in English—in general we think of English as having one sound for each letter and Japanese as having one beat (mora) for each kana symbol. In the names ‘Nina’ and ‘Lisa,’ for example, English speakers hear four sounds in each. We also hear similar vowel sounds in the two names and use the same letters, “i” and “a,” to represent them. What is more, we hear the consonant /n/ twice in the first name and there— fore expect the same letter to occur twice in its spelling.6 But what about the katakana representation? Three symbols are used for ‘Nina’ (2—7“). The first represents /ni/, and the third, totally diflerent symbol represents /na/. The middle symbol represents the lengthening of the vowel portion of the preceding mora, /i/. ‘Lisa’ is represented with two symbols (U 'D‘), one standing for the /1i/ and the other for the /sa/. No symbol occurs twice in the writing of these two names: nothing in the writing suggests either the resemblance of the 5Letters enclosed in slashes represent sounds; because of the irregularity of English spelling, the same sound may be represented by other letters in nther Prianth 6 ° Leeann IA vowels or the occurrence of /n/ twice in ‘Nina’. Each symbol used in these two names is different and represents an entire mora.7 Our first task is to learn the katakana symbols that represent the mora of Japanese. When Japanese children, already fluent in the spo- ken language, learn to read, they begin with hiragana, the other set of mora—representing symbols, for reasons that do not apply to the foreign learner. For us, katakana has definite advantages as the first system to master. From the start, we want to read and write in authentic, adult style; and to use hiragana to represent everything in the language is not the way Japanese normally write. In fact, starting in the first grade, Japanese children use Chinese characters (kanji) together with their hiragana. More to the point, foreign learners cannot read or write in hiragana with comprehension, at least we cannot comprehend very much, assuming that we begin our study of the Japanese writing system when we have only a very limited knowledge of the language. Since Japanese words borrowed from Western languages (especially English) are regularly written in katakana, katakana immediately pro- vides us with a wealth of material that we can handle and that can be written authentically. What is more, it is important that we be reminded of the difference between the Japanese and English sound systems, and katakana provides excellent practice as we transfer directly from one language to the other. Finally, knowledge of katakana alone enables us to read many authentic Japanese texts, from restaurant menus to hotel notices, where hiragana alone has little use. In japanese: The Written Lan- guage we therefore begin with katakana, then add hiragana and work with examples that use both of these syllabaries, and finally add kanji. At all times we work with the language written authentically, in normal adult style. There are, of course, loanwords in the Japanese language that have come from languages other than English. The vast majority of loan- words have English origins, however, and it is these on which we will focus most of our attention. Items borrowed from English and written in katakana can almost always be understood by the native speaker of English provided a few conversion tips are learned. And once having heard the Japanese bor— rowing of a foreign word, the English speaker can almost invariably write it accurately in katakana, provided the symbols have been learned. (Could we say this about the predictability of English spelling?) On the other hand, given an English word in its original form, we cannot always 7Tl'19 din-ht Hian-nnrn in lnnn-i-k ml? the firm» nnnrnl in w-nnnnA-nri : n n n fl . . A u 4.1.. ixr:l__.: ___ _1 Lemon IA ‘ 7 predict what the Japanese conversion will be. Borrowings in Japanese are usually based on British or American pronunciation but sometimes on English spelling, and there is no way to make foolproof predictions. What is more, where there are difierent pronunciations in English for the same word, there is no way to predict which one the Japanese have chosen as the basis for their borrowing. We therefore concentrate on how to read katakana and how to write borrowed words in Japanese. We do not move from English directly to Japanese when the borrowed Japanese word is unfamiliar. As we gain more and more experience in reading katakana and seeing conversions from English to Japanese, we will find that we are automatically gaining facility in predicting how to move in this opposite direction. Consider, for a moment, the question of pronunciation versus spell- ing. In studying the spoken language, we learn the Japanese borrowing for ‘cake'. We represent this borrowing in romanization as keeki. The katakana writing of this word corresponds to its Japanese pronuncia- tion, not its English spelling. In learning to read katakana, it is impor- tant always to pronounce an item aloud and listen to it, because most bor- rowings are based on pronunciation. We must not get entangled in the vagaries of English spelling until we recognize the English item that is represented. (An example of a Japanese borrowing based on English spelling is ko—ko-a, the borrowing for ‘c0coa’.) Let us now begin to master katakana, learning each symbol within a context and remembering always to concentrate first on reading (the receptive skill), then on writing (the productive skill). We will learn the katakana representation for each of the 113 mora of Japanese, plus a few special conventions that occur only in borrowed words pro- nounced with innovative pronunciation. In the following lessons, English glosses are enclosed in single quo- tation marks (‘cake’), and romanization is shown in boldface (keeki). Lowercase letters enclosed in slashes represent sounds in English (/k/ ) or occasionally in another foreign language. A romanized vowel pre- ceded by a hyphen (as in -e) represents both the mora consisting of the vowel alone (e) as well as any mora ending in the vowel (ke, se, te, etc.). Remember that in katakana writing, a single symbol stands for each different /consonant+vowel/ combination; the consonant and the vowel cannot be written separately, as they always are in romani— zation. To begin with, it is useful to master the regular vowel correspond- ences. The following list covers most conversions. All Japanese vowels and UnuIF-l rnmhinqrinno npn'l'lr knfln -..:+L "an -..:I1- ___, 8 ' Lemon [A Japanese vowel or vowel Words with corresponding combination English vowel or diphthong8 -a ‘pat’ or ‘pad’ or ‘putt’ or ‘ah!’ (short) or ‘sofa’ -aa ‘ma’ or ‘card’ or ‘bird’ -ai ‘my’ -au or -ao ‘cow’ -i ‘sit’ (or ‘seat’) -ii ‘seed’ -u ‘look’ (or ‘Luke’) -uu ‘mood’ -e ‘let’ (or ‘late’) -ee or -ei ‘laid’ -o ‘cot’ (or ‘coat’) -oo ‘mode’ or ‘Maud’ -ou ‘rnode’ -0i ‘boy’ Katakana Symbols 1—] 0 Many English-language names have been borrowed into the Japanese language. Besides their frequent occurrence in the Japanese media, they are often found on business cards of foreigners in Japan. While there are many commonly occurring given names in EnglishhMary, John, Scott, Emily—family names vary widely.9 Let us start by learning to read some given names. How is the name ‘Nina’ represented in the Japanese writing system? Actually this name is pronounced with its first vowel lengthened, giving us a third mora: ni-i-na. 8A diphthong is a combination of more than one vowel sound within one syllable. For example, English ‘high' is a one-syllable word containing a diphthong that moves from an /a/—sound to an /i/—sound. Compare the pronunciation of Japanese hai, which has two mora (ha + i) rather than one diphthong. 9The situation is quite the opposite in Japanese, where there are commonly occurring family names but a great variety of given names. “cm. .: -.>- L..- Leaaon [A 0 9 Handwritten Stroke Order Katakana Romanization Symbol and Direction (1) 5: Hi I“. ’2" fl :4 (2) 2L na #— A special symbol that occurs commonly in katakana is written — in horizontal writing and I in vertical writing. It represents the lengthen— ing of the vowel of the preceding mora, and it is allotted just as much space as any other katakana symbol. So the Japanese equivalent of ‘Nina’ is 11—3“ or Z Niina I 3— Remember to read it with a Japanese pronunciation, which is always dif— ferent from the English pronunciation. Japanese writing 13 best practiced on boxed paper, which the Japa— nese themselves often use for writing practice, much the way English writers use lined paper. Each symbol, including the vowel-lengthening symbol and marks of punctuation, is assigned one box. Notice how every symbol for Niina occupies the same relative space. or E Now, how is ‘Lisa’ represented in katakana? Since the vowels are both heard as short, only two symbols are used, one representing /li/ and the other /sa/. But none of the 113 mora of Japanese corresponds to /li/. The closest sound is the mora represented in romanization as ri. Here is our first conversion tip for converting borrowed Japanese back into English. CONVERSION TIP 1: The r— that begins a mora may represent an /r/ 0f CVCI']. thOUE'h this lanfinPRP an‘nri in 10 ' Lemma [A I 2 (3) U ri I J *l J; I rtr. F We are now ready to read ‘Lisa’ in katakana: U ‘U’ or U Risa ‘U‘ (4) ‘U’ sa Can you read the following names? Remember not to be confused by English spellings: most conversions are based on pronunciation. Lis— ten to the audio representation of these examples on the JWL Web site. a. U — Rii ‘Lee’ b. U U H ‘Lily’ C. ‘U‘U — Sarii ‘Sally’ We now add to our katakana symbols and conversion tips, continu- ing to use given names as our borrowing category. .u- 13'— (5) 3‘ te 7"" "7's" 1 Example: 5‘ U — Terii ‘Terry’ or ‘Telly’ (6) y n / ’1 This symbol represents the syllabic nasal of Japanese: in word—final po- sition, it converts to an /n/ in English; elsewhere it converts to sounds similar to /m/, /n/, or /ng/, conforming to the following sound. Example: U ‘/ Rifi ‘Lynn’ v.77 (7) 7 a F f This Ilnfn1lnnn mun-.an nr-r-11v‘n An!“ “Jar.” n «nmwnnnmam n... nun...“ Lemon 1A ' 11 mora, not when it occurs as the vowel of a mora consisting of a / consonant + a/, like na, or when it represents the lengthening of the preceding vowel. Examples: a. 7? Afi ‘Ann’ b. U U 7 y Ririafi ‘Lillian' (8) l‘ to 'x Example: 3*“ Tonii ‘Tony’ (9) A mu A A In English, unlike Japanese, many words and syllables end in a conso— nant. In Japanese, only a nasal consonant, represented by syllabic 1'1, may occur in this position. When borrowing into Japanese items with a final consonant that is not /n/, the most common procedure is to add -u, that is, to use a / consonant + u/ mora. This gives us our second conversion tip. CONVERSION TIP 2: In converting from Japanese back into English, try omitting the -u vowel that follows consonants at the end of words and syllables. Examples: a. i‘ix Tomu ‘Tom’ b. “U1; Samu I 1—? (10) & ke if] “j; 7; What names are these? ‘Sam’ a. 0’ ‘/ Kefi ‘Ken’ b. b‘:~— Kenii ‘Kenny’ 12 ° Landon [B The kana for tu regularly represents a sequence similar to English /ts(u)/, which makes it diflicult to associate it with English /t(u)/. Thus, to represent /t/ at the end of English words or syllables, instead of following the usual “add u” rule, Japanese usually uses to. CONVERSION TIP 3: When converting from Japanese back into English, try dropping the -o of the mora l‘ to when it occurs at the end of a word or syllable. Thus: ’5’ - l* Keeto ‘Kate’ Do Exercise 1.2 in the Workbook. SECTION B We continue with the introduction of symbols. Katakana Symbols 11—20 (11) El r0 D Can you read these names? Remember Conversion Tip 1 about mora that begin with r-. a. 133/ Ron ‘Ron’ b. Elf—".— Rom’i ‘Ronny’ c. E! — U *— Roorii ‘Laurie’ or ‘Rory’ I4 (12) x su X \ Examples: a. X“ Suu ‘Sue’ b. 7 U 2 Arisu ‘Alice’ [1 (13) 9 kn 7 ‘ 7 LBJJOI’Z 1B 0 13 Consonant clusters (i.e., sequences of consonants within a single syllable, as in ‘fleetfi, a common feature of English, are impossible in Japanese. The usual procedure is to convert from English by using mora that end in -u (or, if the consonant is /t/, the mora to), for all except the syllabic nasal f1 and the final consonant of the cluster. Thus, ‘street’, converted into Japanese, becomes X l‘ U *- l‘ sutoriito. In moving back from Japanese to English, once again we try dropping occurrences of -u in /consonant + u/ mora and the -o of to, just as we did when these occurred at the end of a word or syllable (Conversion Tips 2 and 3). Example: 5 U 2 Kurisu ‘Chris’ 1 (14) )1/ ru 1 J/ J} [y Examples: a. JV- Ruu ‘Lew’ or ‘Lou’ b. )l/~§ Ruuku ‘Luke’ Mr (15) :7 ma “:7 2‘ Can you identify these names? a. V U H Marii ‘Marie’ b. 7 U 7 Maria ‘Maria’ c. l‘ —’\72 Toomasu ‘Thomas’ Do Exercise 1.?) in the Workbook. The combinations /ar/ as in ‘hard’ and /er/ as in ‘herd’ in English are usually represented in Japanese as a long -aa or sometimes, in word- final position, as a short -a.10 Unpredictably, the combination may also be represented, according to the more general pattern, as -aru and -eru (see Conversion Tips 2 and 3). CONVERSION TIP 4: Check any occurrences of -aa as possibly representing English /ar/ or /er/. 10A varierv (if F.no‘lich enellinat renrpcpn‘r fluqu unnnrle in Yunrrlc- punk m. ‘L,...’ Km}! l4 0 Lemon [B Thus: 7 H 7 Maaku ‘Mark’ 7 H l‘ Aato ‘Art’ The /th/ sound, as in English ‘thank’, does not occur in japanese. To replace it, the Japanese usually use a mora beginning with 5-. Thus, ‘thank’ is converted to Japanese d)? safiku, which could of course also represent English ‘sank’. CONVERSION TIP 5: An s— may convert back into English as an /s/ or as a /th/, as in ‘thank’. Do you recognize these names? a. 7—“? Maasa ‘Martha’ b. 7~'U‘H Aasaa ‘Arthur’ C. )I/_X Ruusu ‘Ruth’ (1. “5’7 Vfi' Samafisa ‘Samantha’ I “6) ’r i 4 This is another example of a katakana symbol that represents a vowel alone as a mora. It occurs only when the vowel -i is a mora by itself and is not the lengthening of the vowel of the preceding mora. Can you read these names? a. ’1’ 7? Iafi ‘Ian’ b. III/1‘ Roi ‘Roy’ c. U_|3’l Riiroi ‘Leroy’ d. Jlx’f Rui ‘Louie’ e. ill/{X Ruisu ‘Louis’ or ‘Lewis’ The English diphthong /ey/ as in ‘May’ may be borrowed with ei— ther a long -ee or an ~ei in Japanese Ioanwords.11 In some examples, only one of these spellings is regularly used, and in others, we have a choice. “Remember that -ei in Iananese is nm‘a rh‘nhrhrmn in .1 tannin mama“ 1.“... ._ .. Lemon IB ' 15 Thus: 5 H l‘ Keeto or 5‘4 1* Keito ‘Kate’ \ A 3 (17) 9 Si 7 If we recall all the romanized mora that begin with 5-, we notice a change in the quality of the sound represented by s- when it occurs before -i, bringing it closer to (but not making it the same as) English /sh/. It is not surprising, then, that both ‘see’ (or ‘sea’) and ‘she’ are written the same way when converted into japanese: 5/— sii. CONVERSION TIP 6: The s- in the mora 3/ si may represent English /s/, /sh/, or, as pointed out in Conversion Tip 5, /th/, as in ‘think’. What personal names are these? a. 9w} Siina ‘Sheena’ b. :/'J 7 Siria ‘Celia’ c. i/“/‘) 7 Sisiria ‘Cecilia’ d. fl— ’/ “/—* Nafisii ‘Nancy’ e. 7H*/— Maasii ‘Marcy’ f. )b—:/_ Ruusii ‘Lucy’ or ‘Ruthie’ Do Exercise 1.4 in the Workbook. (18) 1/ re 1/ Can you read these names? a. 7 l/ ‘/ Arefi ‘Allen’ b. 5 1/ 7 Kurea ‘Clair’ c. l/X U r“ Resurii ‘Lesley’ d. 1:! e- I/ ‘/ Roorefi ‘Lauren’ e. D — l/ ‘/ X Roorefisu ‘Lawrence’ 16 ' Lemon [B f. l‘ 1/ H 9 H Toreesii or b 1/4 “V H Toreisii ‘Tracy’ g. 7“ l/ '3’ Teresa ‘Teresa’ h. 1/ ’f Rei ‘Ray’ (19) /\ he /\ n,/‘*\ What are these names? a. ’\ 3/ U *- Hefirii ‘Henry’ b. “\ 1/ ‘/ Herefi ‘Helen’ c. ’\ l/il‘ Herena ‘Helena’ I e L :2 Here, again, is a symbol that represents a vowel alone. It is used only when -e occurs as a mora by itself, never to represent lengthening of a preceding vowel. Examples: a. I? Ema ‘Emma’ b. 311/) Erefi ‘Ellen’ C' 1U) Erifi ‘Erin’ d. IJV/_ Emsii ‘Elsie’ A /ye/ sequence at the beginning of an English word has tradition— ally been represented by ee or ie in Japanese. Example: IHJI/ Eeru or ’f I—Jl/ Ieeru ‘Yale’ Do Exercise 1.5 in the Workbook. Lamar: IB ' 17 Gozyuuofi-hyoo ‘Toble of Fifi); Sounds’ japanese mora are traditionally organized in what is referred to as the Gozyuuofi-hyoo ‘Table of Fifty Sounds’, even though not all the boxes in the ten by five chart are filled and syllabic 1‘1 is “extra.” The symbols in the chart are read vertically from right to left—that is, starting with the a column and ending with 13. The fixed order of mora in the Gozyuuofi-hyoo, like the order of letters of the English alphabet, is used to organize entries in dictionaries, indexes, and other lists of words. The simplest way to learn the gozyuuofi order is to memorize (1) the regular order of vowels, a, i, u, e, o, and (2) the horizontal -a row, as if it were two nonsense words: akasatana and hamayarawa + f1. With just this information, we can determine the gozyuuofi order of any list of words in katakana. Diflerent dictionaries treat the vowel-lengthening symbol (~— or I ) differently. Usually it is treated as if the lengthening were written out appropriately (for example, :Ffl‘ is listed as if it were written :4’ ‘3‘); occasionally dictionaries ignore the symbol (ix-'3‘ is listed as :d‘). In this textbook, we follow the first, more common con— vention. Remember that when English /ey/ is borrowed into Japanese, it may be represented in japanese in two ways, as -ee or -ei. Its listing in a Japanese dictionary depends on which spelling is used. Do Exercise 1.5 in the Workbook. Summon) of Symbols Introduced in Lesson I Here is the Gozyuuofi-hyoo with the katakana symbols you have learned in Lesson I inserted in the appropriate boxes. The numbers in the cor- 18 ' Labor: 1C 6 fi wa ra ya 15 ma 2 na 4 sa ka 7 a 7 at o 7 3 ti 1 ni ti 17 si ki 16 i U .2 ‘9 ’1' 14m yu9 mu m12su13ku )l/ A Z 9 18 re 19 he 5 10 ke 20 e I/ :7- }? I te no 8 to Special Symbol: — (in horizontal writing) or I (in vertical writing) (vowel lengthening) SECTION C Review all the examples in Lesson 1, making certain that you are able to read with facility every one of the twenty katakana symbols that have been introduced. Reading katakana even in context provides only limited opportunities for guessing symbols you don’t know. You must be sure of the sound value of all the symbols. Be careful to distinguish those symbols that have rather similar shapes and are often confused, espe— c1ally in production: 7, V, and A I/ and )l/ E and ‘/ ’l' and l‘ 9' and ’5‘ I Predictably, the names for foreign foods and drinks are borrowed mto Japanese along with the foods and drinks themselves. Can you read and identify the following food items? Remember to retain corre— sponding Japanese pronunciation when you are reading! a. h?l~ QUHXl‘ efiU—JA b. h—Xl‘ d.“/U7}1/ £74X5U—“A a. l“? b tomato ‘tomato’; b. b—“X l‘ toosuto ‘toast’; c. lib—X l‘ roosuto ‘roast’; d. “V U 7» siriaru ‘Cereal’; 6. 7 U *-.Z_\ kuriimu cream’; f. 74’} 7 U Fix aisukuriimu ‘ice cream’ Lemon 1C ° 19 With the exception of names of places in Japan and of a few in the rest of Asia, the Japanese have borrowed place—names from foreign lan- guages. These are all written in katakana, and the katakana spelling, as usual, may be derived from the foreign spelling rather than the foreign pronunciation. The origin may be English or another language. Do Exercise 1.7 in the Workbook. If you encounter diflflculties in figuring out how to convert a kata- kana item, try writing out its romanized equivalent and then apply the conversion tips. Remember, however, that this is a fallback method, which should be necessary only on rare occasions. Your goal is to be able to process Japanese words written in katakana without having to make conscious reference to any conversion tips. Use Flash Cards 1 on the Web site to practice pronOuncing non— Japanese names in Japanese. Practice associating them with their corre~ sponding English names and organizing them according to gozyuuofi order, too. For now, use only names in Lesson 1. Use the audio pro‘ gram on the Web site to verify your Japanese pronunciation. Producing Katakaua Symbols The widespread use of computers and word processors has, to some ex- tent, reduced the need to produce written symbols from memory, but many texts continue to be handwritten. Although calligraphy as an art form is outside our present concern, we do need to know some of the basics of Japanese penmanship to write Japanese symbols and use Japanese dictionaries. Learning to write katakana has an added benefit: when we learn to write kanji later on, we will find that many katakana symbols occur as components of kanji. Beginning learners of Japanese writing must pay close attention to stroke types, the length and angle of each stroke, stroke order, and the overall balance of the symbol. The katakana symbols introduced so far are written with three basic types of strokes: (1) “straight” lines of various lengths at various angles, (2) slightly curved lines of various lengths at variOus angles, and (3) combination strokes, which begin with a straight line followed by a curved line or another straight line at an angle. The vowel—lengthening symbol is a good example of a long straight line. The katakana symbol ’1’ is written with an angled curved line and a vertical straight line. The symbol 1/ is written with a single combination stroke that starts with a straight line and continues with a slightly curved line going from bottom n I r- i 1 __f.._1._f___ .1‘ __A.____ _ .1-..“ 20 ° £8440}! 1C looking up kanji in dictionaries, it is important to start making careful distinctions between two distinct strokes and a single stroke that is a combination of two or more lines. Some of the characteristics of strokes in traditional brush writing are evident in today’s writing with pen and pencil and even in word processed symbols. For example, “straight” lines, whether vertical or horizontal, tend to have areas at the beginning and at the end where the line is slightly thicker, which originally resulted from resting the brush on the paper. There is no such thickening of the line at the beginning of short lines that are angled. Curved lines usually end with a gradual departure of the writing instrument from the writing surface, resulting in a gradual thinning of the line. Compare the first (straight) stroke and the second (culved) stroke of katakana U ri. The end of the curved stroke shows a gradual thinning. The angles and relative lengths of strokes are important. For exam— ple, compare : ni and P ii. Both have two strokes, but :— is written with two straight lines, one short and the other longer, with the two lines nearly parallel to each other. Katakana 9 starts with a slightly angled, short straight line, followed by a curved line drawn from bottom to top. Notice that the first stroke in V, drawn from the high left down to the lower right, starts with no thickening (no resting of the brush); the top part of the second stroke, where the stroke ends, is thinner than the bottom part. With few exceptions, like ‘/ 13, whose second stroke starts at the bottom and ends high, symbols are written from left to right, then top to bottom. To write the symbol l“ to, for example, first draw one long straight line from the top down, then a short straight line at an approx- imately forty—five-degree angle dOWn from the middle of the first stroke. To produce the symbol ’5’ ke, write a short curved stroke then a hori- zontal straight stroke, and then a slightly longer curved downward stroke. Finally, the overall shape is important. Consider, for example, U r0. At first this may look like a simple square box. Careful examination will reveal that the first stroke and the second part of the combination horizontal stroke and a vertical stroke. However, in 3‘, the vertical curved stroke begins above the horizontal stroke and crosses it. In ’1’ , the vertical straight line starts at the middle of the angled curved line and d0es not cross it. Similarly, the second stroke in X su does not cross Hm; mafia...) __ _ . r- .1 n 2 vowel lengthening ; . na Leaaon 1C ' 21 Now we are ready to start writing the katakana symbols introduced in this lesson. Symbol Production Practice 1. Study the stroke types and stroke order in each model symbol. 2. Place a sheet of tracing paper over the model symbols. 3. Trace the completed symbol. Follow the proper stroke order and pay attention to stroke type. 4. Proceed to the next frame to the left, which is one stroke short of being complete. Trace all of the printed strokes, and then add the last stroke to complete the symbol. 5. Proceed left one frame at a time, each time tracing all of the printed strokes and then adding the missing strokes to complete the symbol. When you get to the last frame, you will be filling in every stroke except the first. 6. Use the empty boxes to the right of each symbol to practice writing the entire symbol several times. I 01' lllllflll Hflflfilfii \ I 22 ° Lawn JC SECTION A As we increase our inventory of symbols, we will use place-names as well as personal names for examples. Katakana Symbols 21—30 (21) '7 wa r7 This is the only commonly occurring katakana symbol in the w—column in the Gozyuuofi-hyoo. Place-name: a. '7 3/ ‘/ l\ ‘/ Wasifitoii ‘Washington’ Personal names: b. '7 U — Warii ‘Wally’ c. '7 1x2 Waresu ‘Wallace’ 1 (22) A ha I \ J V Where? a. J\ '7 ’l’ Hawai ‘Hawaii’ Who? E As soon.as you can produce each of the katakana symbols intro— ‘: bi Aj— Hana iiuced 1n th1s lesson quickly and accurately, you are ready for Exercises or A yj— Hal—ma ‘Hannah, .8, 1.9, and 1.10 in the Workbook. Then use the audio program on the " c. }\ U - Harii ‘Harry’ Web site as dictation cues to practice writin . the iven name In Lesson 1_ g g S presented ...
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JWL L1 - S E C T I O N A About the fapanese Writing System...

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