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agchapter 12

agchapter 12 - Chapter 12 Food Soil and Pest Management...

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Chapter 12 – Food, Soil, and Pest Management What is food security and why is it difficult to obtain? o Food security – every person in a given area has daily access to enough nutritious food to have an active and healthy lifestyle. o Food insecurity – living with chronic hunger and poor nutrition, which threatens their ability to lead healthy and productive lives. The root cause of food insecurity is poverty (also political upheaval, corruption, war) o Chronic undernutrition/hunger – when people who cannot grow or buy enough food to meet their basic energy needs o Chronic malnutrition – deficiencies of protein and other key nutrients which weakens them, makes them more susceptible to disease and hinders the development of children Many of the world’s poor can only afford to live on low-protein, high- carbohydrate, vegetarian diets consisting mainly of wheat, rice, or corn o One in three people suffers from a deficiency of one or more vitamins and minerals Too little iron – leads to anemia New strains of golden rice contain more iron than conventional strains Some critics claim that golden rice is a ploy to suppress negative opinions of genetically engineered crops o Famine – a severe shortage of food in an area accompanied by mass starvation, death, economic chaos, and social disruption Acute shortages can lead to famines o Overnutrition – when food energy intake exceeds energy use and causes excess body fat Overnutrition may lead to: lower life expectancy, greater susceptibility to disease, and lower productivity and quality of life o Food production has increased dramatically o Three systems supply most of our food: Crop lands – produce grains, produce 77% of the world’s food using 11% of the land Rangelands/pastures/feedlots – produce meat (16%/29%) Oceanic fisheries – supply 7% of the world’s food Such food specialization puts us in a vulnerable position should the small number of food sources we depend on diminish o Industrialized agriculture/high-input agriculture – uses heavy equipment and large amounts of capital, fossil fuel, water, commercial fertilizers, and pesticides to produce single crops (monocultures) o Plantation agriculture – used primarily in tropical developing countries to grow cash crops such as bananas, soybeans, cocaine sugarcane, coffee, and palm oil o Traditional agriculture consists of two main types: Subsistence agriculture – uses mostly human labor and draft animals to produce only enough food for the family’s survival
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Intensive agriculture – farmers increase their inputs to produce a bigger yield for sale o Polyculture – growing several crops on the same plot simultaneously Implements the biodiversity principle of sustainability Slash-and-burn agriculture – type of subsistence agriculture which involves the burning and clearing of small plots in tropical forests and growing crops until the soil is depleted o Green revolution
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agchapter 12 - Chapter 12 Food Soil and Pest Management...

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