Unformatted text preview: participation. (Bottom-up initiatives are usually less controversial as they are based on consensus & peaceful conflict resolution) Stakeholder Participation - Introduction Stakeholder someone with an interest/stake in a decision-making process. People can belong to different stakeholder groups (i.e. they have multi-identities) Arnstein’s Participation Ladder (1969) [simplified version] Citizen control Citizen power: 2 way information flow Partnership Consultation Tokenism: 1 way information flow Informing Non-participation Manipulation...
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- Fall '11
- Climate Change, collective action, way information flow