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agexam - I Biomes determines vegetation A Variations A.1...

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I) Biomes ** determines vegetation A) Variations A.1) Heat – solar radiation ** Important for evaporation / heat transfer A.2) Precipitation – how much and when A.3) Air circulation / Wind ** Wind carries moisture/rainfall, which is vital for vegetation - Water evaporates vertically from equators to the poles - Hot air (heated from the Sun) containing moisture moves up, east to west - The air eventually cools down and rains - The air mass loses its moisture as they approach +/- 30 o altitude, that is where all the deserts are located - After it passes 30 o , wind blows from west to east and after 60 o , easterly wind blows again A.4) Deforestation results in heat buildup because trees go through evapotranspiration which transfer heat to other places through the clouds B) Seasons B.1) Tropical Forest Area - There is only two seasons – summer and winter - It is actually hotter in the winter because there is no leaves to do evapotranspiration B.2) Other Areas - There is four seasons – spring, summer, fall, winter C) Types C.1) Tundra - Grows where it’s too cold for trees - Wetter than it seems - Short summer = short growing season - Permafrost – ice layer underground - Pattern ground – cracked ground from evaporation of ponds - Shape of animals living there are rounder so no body parts stick out and get frosted - Arctic tundra – farther north, 24 hour daylight in summer - Alpine tundra – high altitude/mountains C.2) Temperate Deciduous Forest - Two layers only - Lose leaves in the winter - Spring wildflower – grow when ground is heated up but trees are yet, a few weeks to a month - Dominated by broad leaf deciduous trees such as oak, hickory, maple, poplar - Drop leaves in fall and become dormant during winter - Slow rate of decomposition causes thick layer of leaf litter, which stores nutrients C.3) Tropical Rainforest
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- Most diverse, most productive, contains the most carbon - Many layers - No season, year-round rainfall - Evergreen broadleaf trees - Competition for sunlight and nutrients Grow tall Grow on tall plants – binding Grow a new branch - Different height of trees, different things growing on the trees - 80% canopy occur in tropical rainforest - Epiphyte – a plant growing on another plant - As you go up the altitude in the rainforest, it gets cooler, more moist and foggier, therefore the trunks of the trees up there are covered with mosses C.4) Tropical Savanna - Scattered trees with grasses between - Maintained by fire - Generates good soil for protein - Animals are always in groups C.5) Deserts - Around 30 o altitude - Animals are adapted to lack of water Produce leaves quickly when there is precipitation to absorb water Living off metabolic water (or dew) Lose heat efficiently C.6) Coniferous Forest - No more deciduous trees - Mosses on the floor - Snow during winter II) Aquatic Ecosystem A) Characteristics A.1) Temperature changes much less in water than on land A.2) Simpler and less diverse compared to terrestrial ecosystem A.3) Majority of the body of the ocean does receive light, therefore no photosynthesis – less productive A.4) 10% of our food source
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