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agexam review 2

agexam review 2 - Chapter 7 Terrestrial Biomes What factors...

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Chapter 7 – Terrestrial Biomes What factors influence climate? Solar radiation, the earths rotation, global patterns of air and water movement, gases in the atmosphere, and earths surface features Earths many different climates Weather -local areas short term temperature, humidity, wind speed, cloud cover and conditions of the lower atmosphere Climate - general pattern of atmospheric or weather conditions measured over long periods of time Varies in certain areas because of global air circulation and ocean currents redistribute heat and precipitation unevenly Three major factors that affect how air circulates in lower atmosphere: 1.Uneven heating of earths surface by sun Heat much more at equator where suns rays strike directly Strikes at a slant at the poles 2.Rotation of earth on its axis Equator spins faster than polar regions Heated air masses rising above equator and moving north and south to cooler areas are deflected to the west and east over different parts of the earths surface Cells -atmosphere divided into huge regions, distinguished by direction of air movement Prevailing winds -different directions of air movement, major surface winds that blow almost constantly and help distribute heat, air moisture, and dust 3.Properties of air, water and land Heat from sun evaporates ocean water and transports heat from ocean to atmosphere Evaporation causes giant cyclical convection cells that circulate air, heat and moisture vertically Currents -prevailing winds blowing over the oceans produce mass movements of surface water What creates warm and cold ocean currents? Heat differences in water density Prevailing winds and irregular shaped continents interrupt these currents and cause them to flow in circular pattern between continents North-clockwise South-counter clock wise Cold water has a higher density so it sinks and warm water has a lower density Connected loop of deep and shallow ocean currents How are the ocean and the atmosphere connected? Ocean currents are affected by atmosphere winds Heat from ocean affects atmosphere circulation Greenhouse gases warm the lower atmosphere CH4 and N2O determine earths average temperatures and its climates Infrared radiation and Ultraviolet radiation is passed from sun to atmosphere
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Greenhouse gases -warming effect of the troposphere Without these the planet would be lifeless Human enhanced global warming could cause climate changes in various places on earth that could last up to thousands of years Earths Surface Features Affect Local Climates Heat is absorbed and released more slowly by water than land Mountains interrupt the flow of prevailing surface winds and the movement of storms Warm air moves up, as it rises it cools and expands and then looses most of its moisture as rain and snow on the windward slope of the mountain Leeward -away from the wind The loss of moisture from the landscape and resulting semiarid on the leeward side of the mountain cause the Rain Shadow Effect Leads to formation of deserts
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agexam review 2 - Chapter 7 Terrestrial Biomes What factors...

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