agFeb18_Food_Social Org_Economics

agFeb18_Food_Social Org_Economics - Food, Social...

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Food, Social Organization and Economic Systems
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Today’s Topics Definition of social organization Aspects of culture: universal, general, particular Economic (exchange) systems The roles of food in social organization
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Social Organization refers to: “The way a social group organizes its members into families, social strata, communities and other groupings…” And “the complex set of norms that regulate relationships , provide templates for the way work is organized in the household and influence how the day is organized.” (Bryant et al. 2003)
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Social organization is how a society arranges to meet the needs of its members and achieve its future survival. All human societies must meet common needs ; these comprise universal aspects of culture . Societies vary greatly in how they express these universal aspects. Variations lead to general and particular aspects of culture.
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What are the universal aspects of culture? Universal: To survive and reproduce, all cultures have: Economic system to procure basic necessities (food, water, protection from the elements) Educational system to bring up children to understand and continue the culture System of marriage and family to raise subsequent generations System of social control (political system) to assure that cultural norms, values, and ways of life are followed; includes belief system (religion)
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General Aspects of Culture General aspects of culture are found in many but not all cultures Ex: the nuclear family (even cultures that prefer extended families usually acknowledge father/mother/children as a recognizable unit) Ex: consumption of meat Some cultures forgo meat based upon the relationship between humans, animals, or environment Other aspects
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agFeb18_Food_Social Org_Economics - Food, Social...

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