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Unformatted text preview: How Future Climate Change Will Affect Food Security In Sudan, Africa Sub-Saharan Africa - this arid to semi-arid region where 60% of the population depends directly on farming appears to be most vulnerable to climate change.- Hardy, 2003 Contents sheet Introduction 1 Methodology 3 Results and discussion 4 Sugar cane 5 Sorghum 6 Millet 7 Wheat 8 Tomatoes 9 Groundnuts 11 Dates 12 Potatoes 13 Sesame seeds 14 Cotton 14 Discussion (continued) 15 Conclusions and summary 17 Appendixes 18 References 20 Introduction Climate change is a continually occurring natural phenomenon whereby the temperature and precipitation patterns of a given area alter over geological time-scales. However, it is now widely accepted within the scientific and political community that accelerated climate change is occurring due to human activities (IPCC, 2007). Climate change speculation is very difficult as the Earth is a highly complex entity and there are numerous uncertainties and unknowns to its functioning. As such, attempting to predict ecological, social and economic consequences of climate change should be taken cautiously (Glantz, 2003; Arnold, 2009). The climate of a given area is to a large extent governed by global atmospheric circulation patterns, where evaporated water rises and travels pole-wards until they cool, condense and release latent heat. One prediction of the effects of global warming suggests that, as evaporated waters will remain warmer for longer due to atmospheric and oceanic temperatures being warmer, they will travel further pole-wards before condensing - thereby increasing the amount of precipitation in the mid-latitudes, but decreasing precipitation at low latitudes (Hardy, 2003). As water availability is key to plant growth, changes in precipitation levels and patterns will have serious impacts on agriculture, with shifts in growing areas resulting in agricultural productivity increasing in some regions and decreasing in others (Hardy, 2003; Wong, 2009). Downing & Stowell (2003) identify two main ways in which climate influences food security: o Climate influences the lands growing potential (by determining the growing season). o Climatic hazards, such as drought and flood, can directly influence food security by damaging or destroying crops, and can also indirectly impact food security because of the economic and social impacts they can result in....
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- Fall '11