Afghanistan Neg - Six Week - ENDI

Afghanistan Neg - Six Week - ENDI - Emory Critical...

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Emory 1 Critical Afghanistan Neg A2: IMPERIALISM/OTHERIZATION IMPACTS Group identification is inevitable. Evolution through most of human history. Shaw and Wong ’87  (R. Paul, U. British Columbia, and Yuwa, Simon Fraser U., International Studies Quarterly, “Ethnic  Mobilization and the Seeds of Warfare: An Evolutionary Perspective”, 31:1, March, JSTOR, p. 11-12) Summing up, we propose that inclusive fitness considerations  (an ultimate cause),  have combined with competition over   scarce resources  (environment), intergroup  conflict and weapon development  (changing environment), to (1) reinforce   humanity's  propensity to band together in groups of genetically related individuals, (2) predispose  group members to act   in concert for their own well-being, first and foremost, and  (3) promote xenophobia, fear, and antagonism among   genetically related individuals  towards strangers. We interpret these responses as "emerging" or reinforcing  proximate   causes which  shaped the structure of social behavior in hunter/gatherer  groups for 99 percent of humanity's existence . In  keeping with Shaw (1985a, 1985b),  we submit that such behaviors have proven functional in terms of enhancing  reproduction  and survival of close relatives and that evolution has "taken these behaviors  with it." This interpretation is  not based on genetic reductionism—that a specific gene,  or more appropriately an allele, is responsible for  conflict/warfare. 3 It derives only from implications of inclusive fitness theory which, as Masters (1983) puts it, offers an  alternative to explaining the evolution of several forms of behavior that is consistent  with the widely observed tendency of  animals to adjust their behavior to maximize their  long-run reproductive success. Group identification is central to human evolution. Biology ties us to kin and tribal affiliation. Shaw and Wong ’87  (R. Paul, U. British Columbia, and Yuwa, Simon Fraser U., International Studies Quarterly, “Ethnic  Mobilization and the Seeds of Warfare: An Evolutionary Perspective”, 31:1, March, JSTOR, p. 8-10) No study of human evolution would be complete without tracking the impact of kinship  on the conduct of human affairs.  Anthropologists , for example, have shown that kinship  dictates organizational structure  of extended families to the extent  that it prescribes who  marries whom (incest avoidance), who cares for whom, who is entitled to inherit from  whom, and  who governs (males in patrilineal societies). Yet, most social scientists treat  kinship and ethnicity as mere access ; group  members "happen" to be those who  interact enough to transmit culture to one another (or who are similar or different in 
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This note was uploaded on 02/23/2012 for the course DEBATE 101 taught by Professor None during the Spring '12 term at Berkeley.

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Afghanistan Neg - Six Week - ENDI - Emory Critical...

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