___ of ___
A) The Links
1. Security Risks represent nothing more than subjective calculations premised upon
international power politics.
Security discourse actually creates the reality of threats
through the Security/Insecurity Paradox.
This discourse of danger is created only to
legitimate the ontological basis for the existence of sovereign boundaries and the
(David, Professor of international politics at the University of Newcastle, “Writing Security’, (199-200))
Security and subjectivity are intrinsically linked
, even in conventional understandings.
Traditional discourses of international
relations maintain that alliance is one where security is a goal to be achieved by a number of instrumentalities
deployed by the state
(defense and foreign policy, for example). But the linkage between the two can be understood in a different light, for just as
Foreign Policy works to constitute the identity in whose name it operates, security functions to instantiate the
subjectivity it purports to serve.
(of which foreign policy/Foreign Policy is a part)
discourse constitutive of political order
after all, "
differentiation, classification and definition.
It has, in short, to be identified."21
An invitation to this line of thought can be found in the later work of Michel Foucault, in which he explicitly
addresses the issue of security and the state through the rubric of "governmental rationality."
The incitement to Foucault's thinking was his observation that from
the middle of the sixteenth century to the end of the eighteenth century, political treatises that previously had been written as advice to the prince were now being
presented as works on the "art jf government." The concern of these treatises was not confined to the requirements of a specific sovereign, but with the more
general problematic of government: a problematic that included the government of souls and lives, of children, of oneself, and finally, of the state by the
sovereign. This problematic of
governance emerges at the intersection of central and centralizing power relationships
located in principles of universality, law, citizenship, sovereignty), and individual
and individualizing power relationships
(such as the pastoral
relationships of the Christian church and the welfare state).
is an ensemble of practices that are at one
and the same time individualizing and totalizing:
I don't think that we should consider the "modern state" as an entity which was developed
above individuals, ignoring what they are and even their very existence, but on the contrary as a very sophisticated structure, in which individuals can be
integrated, under one condition: that this individuality would be shaped in a new form, and submitted to a set of very specific patterns. In a way we can see the