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Agent CPS - Michigan 7 Weeks Agent CPs CCGJP 1 Agent CP...

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Michigan 7 Weeks 1 Agent CPs CCGJP Agent CP Core
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Michigan 7 Weeks 2 Agent CPs CCGJP ***Executive Order***
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Michigan 7 Weeks 3 Agent CPs CCGJP XO CP 1NC Text:  Obs. 1 – Solvency Executive orders control policy and set agendas – key to presidential power Mayer 1  [Kenneth, Professor in the Department of Poli Sci @ University of Wisconsin-Madison,  Executive Orders  and Presidential Power , pg. 28-29] This theoretical perspective offered by the new institutional economics literature provides a way of making  sense of the wide range of executive orders issued over the years, and is the centerpiece of my approach. The  common theme I find in significant executive orders is control; executive orders are an instrument of executive   power that presidents have used to control policy , establish and maintain institutions, shape agendas , manage  constituent relationships, and keep control of their political fate  generally. Within the boundaries set by statute  of the Constitution, presidents have consistently used their executive power – often manifested in executive   orders – to shape the institutional and political context in which they sit . There are, to be sure, limits on what  presidents can do relying solely on executive orders and executive power, and presidents who push too far will  find that Congress and the courts will push back. Yet the president retains significant legal, institutional, and   political advantages that make executive authority a more powerful tool than scholars have  thus far recognized This emphasis on control allows for a longer-term view than that generally taken by informal approaches to  presidential leadership. I conclude that presidents have used executive orders to alter the institutional and  political context in which they operate. The effects of any one effort in this regard may not be immediately  apparent, and in many cases presidents succeed only after following up on what their predecessors have done In this respect I view presidential leadership as both strategic and dynamic, a perspective that brings into   sharper relief the utility of executive power to the presidency . I also differ with Neustadt on this score, as he  looks at how presidents can be tactically effective within a particular structure context over which they have no  control. Executive orders are effective policy tools and cause momentum and defuses opposition Cooper 2  [Phillip, Professor of Public Administration @ Portland State University,  By Order of the President: The  Use and Abuse of Executive Direct Action”  Executive orders can
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