Exam 1 Slide Notes

Exam 1 Slide Notes - GENETICS AND EVOLUTION Lecture 1...

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GENETICS AND EVOLUTION Lecture 1 Chapter 2: Genetic & Evolutionary Roots of Behavior Pg. 3 About 20,000 genes in both humans + worms--arrangement= important Pg. 6 Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes DNA made of ATCG (AT & CG) Pg. 8 Gregor Mendel : discovered how gene expression works through pea plants Internal + external factors affect what genes do Some genes never turn on ("mystery genes")=reserve genes to adapt to different environments-->ability to choose Pg. 9 Homozygous genes for parents, heterozygous for children Genotype=genes you have Phenotype=gene you express (e.g. brown for dad + kids) Gene expression depends on environment and fetal development (usually not expressed if unnecessary) o PKU (causes mental retardation) will never be expressed if eliminated from diet Pg. 10 Charles Darwin : noticed importance of change/adaption Pg. 13 Natural Selection=certain genes are activated (traits) and passed on as necessary Mutations give the environment the opportunity for selection All about competition Chance (mutations) creates variation + nature selects from it Graph represents people who believe in theory of evolution (U.S. not even on there) Pg. 17 Needs for Survival 1. Self-Protection : First organisms had to have walls for protection (viruses) 2. Self-Replication : copies increase chance for survival-- semi-permeable membranes allow for protection + access to world--need to take care of "replicas" as well (offspring) 1. Self-Replenishment & Conservation : need to be able to sustain self 2. Cooperative Specialization & Communication : different cells do different things
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1. Homeostatic Self-Regulation : body tries to stay in optimal condition using specific rules 1. Conflict Resolution : some needs have priority (e.g. water before food) 1. Self-Restoration & Maintenance : sleep Most Important =Protection, Reproduction + Renewal Need Detectors Need to recognize dangers (e.g. we can't detect carbon monoxide yet) Response Mechanism Tells body to do something to resolve need Cue Detectors of Stimuli Guides body in how to respond to needs (interpret signals according to needs, e.g. smell of food when hungry) Success Detectors Tells body what to keep doing for success Positive or negative feedback-->memory + learning Need Detector--> Response Mechanism--> Cue Detector--> Success Detector Civilization exists b/c we take care of each other too KNOW FLOW CHART!! MOTIVATION Pg. 23 Mechanisms that maintain homeostasis--makes sure body remains stable Pg. 24 Homeostasis Set Point=the state the body should be in Sensor=identifies current state in body Comparator=compares current state to set point Restitution Response Mechanism=fixes problem to return to set point (ANS) Pg. 25 Temperature Hypothalamus senses core temperature of body Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) (way body regulates automatically, vs. conscious actions) o Parasympathetic=activated when above set point, rest + digest (sweating, vasodilation, erection etc.)
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o Sympathetic=activated when below
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Exam 1 Slide Notes - GENETICS AND EVOLUTION Lecture 1...

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