30261 - Mineral status of Soil, Feed and Fodder for Dairy...

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Mineral status of Soil, Feed and Fodder for Dairy Animals in different Agro-climatic Zones in INDIA Mayank Tandon National Dairy Research Institute Karnal, Haryana
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Soil Plant Animal Relationship
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Minerals Required by the Dairy Animal (Under wood, 1981) MACRO Minerals: Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Sodium, Potassium, Chlorine, Sulphur MICRO Minerals: Iron, Zinc, Copper, Cobalt, Iodine, Manganese, Molybdenum, Chromium, Fluorine, Selenium Recently added in list: Arsenic, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, Tin, Aluminium, Lead & Rubidium.
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FUNCTIONS AND REQUIRMENT (Georgievskii etal .,1982) Mineral Function Requirement Calcium Structural (bone, teeth, cartilage), Acid- Base balance, Vit-D, Signaling, Enzymes Maintenance: 17 g/d, Milk: 2.3 g/L Phosphorus Structural (bone, teeth), ATP, Oxidation of CHO, Nucleic acids, Phospho-proteins, phospho-lipid Maintenance: 14 g/d, Milk: 2 g/L Magnesium Bone matrix, teeth, soft tissues, various enzymes, 5 g/100kg B.Wt. Or 0.5% of DMI
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Cont…. ( Mc Donald et al ., 1999) Sodium Acid base balance, pH, Nerve function, Na-K pump, 0.5 % of DMI Potassium Acid base balance, Osmotic pressure, Na-K pump 0.2 % of DM Chlorine Associated with Na-K With Na Sulphur Amino acids, Vitamins, hormone, enzymes, structural(hair, wool, hoof) 0.2 % of DMI Micro Minerals Iron Haemoglobin,O 2 -CO 2 transport 500 mg/d-400kg Zinc Various enzymes, 40 mg/kg DMI
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Cont…. Copper Hb, enzymes, melanin, wool, Ceruloplasmin 5-7 mg/kg DM Cobalt Vit B 12, 0.05-0.07 mg/kg DM Iodine Thyroid, T 3 ,T 4; 0.1 mg/kg DM Manganese Enzymes, transport of A As 16-36 mg/kg DM Molybdenum Xanthine oxidase, -- Chromium Glucose utilization -- Fluorine Teeth, bone, -- Selenium Se-AAs, Glutathion peroxidase -- 0.2 -0.3 ppm
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Some Metallo Enzymes in Animals (Georgievskii etal .,1982) S.No Enzymes Metal 1 Monoamine oxidase Cu 2 Uricase Cu 3 Cytochrome oxidase Cu 4 NADH-dehydrogenase Fe 5 Succinate dehydrogenase Fe 6 Aldehyde oxidase Fe, Mo 7 Pyruvate carboxylase Mn 8 Xanthine oxidase Mo 9 Carbonic anhydrase Zn 10 Zn 11 Alcohol dehydrogenase Zn 12 Gultathion peroxidase Se
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Emerging Nutrient Deficiencies in soils as a Result of Increased Food Production ( ) Year 1950 1960 70 80 1990 2000 Food Production 50mt 70mt 108 112 172 209mt Emerging Nutrient Deficiencies ? N N N N N N Fe Fe Fe Fe Fe P P P P Zn Zn Zn Zn K K K K S S S Mn Mn Mn B B ?
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Region-wise Fertilizer Use, Nutrient Removal and Gap(kg/ha) ( ) S.No Region Use Removal Gap 1 Western Himalayan R 51 97 -46 2 Eastern Himalayan R 18 71 -55 3 Lower Gangatic Plains R 81 129 -48 4 Middle Gangatic Plains R 83 116 -33 5 Upper Gangatic Plains R 93 170 -77 6 Trans Gangatic Plains R 120 183 -63 7 Eastern Plateau Hill R 23 83 -60 8 Central Plateau Hill R 30 118 -88
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Cont… 9 Western Plateau Hill R 38 94 -57 10 Southern Plateau Hill R 73 123 -50 11 East Coast Plains & Hill 156 46 - 12 West Coast Plains & Hill 76 127 -51 13 Gujarat Plains & Hill 66 87 -21 14 Western Dry R 6 33 -27 15 The Islands R - - - ALL INDIA 62 117 -55
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30261 - Mineral status of Soil, Feed and Fodder for Dairy...

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