This preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full content.
Unformatted text preview: The Epidemiology of Animal Rabies and Public Health Implications Dr Paul Bartlett MPH., DVM., Ph. D. VM 544 Veterinary Preventive Medicine Raccoon Rabies
Raccoon rabies is moving our way! If it has been moving at 25 to 40 miles a year despite our efforts to stop it. Initially slower movement to the west but not anymore. Movement can be aided by people: 350 mile jump to the Mid-Atlantic states. Jumped across Massachusetts in a garbage truck. Raccoon Rabies Michigan and the Midwest in general has a very high raccoon population which could definitely support a raccoon rabies epidemic. Michigan's options... Hope? River? (no) Control in Ohio? No, it broke through the immune barrier in 1999 Control in Michigan? Doughtful Wildlife Rabies Vaccination Background In Ontario for foxes they used a trap, vaccinate and release program. Other vaccines. Chicken heads! Now Canada and Europe have both used V-RG. Vaccinia-rabies glycoprotien (V-RG) A product of molecular engineering. Only one gene from the rabies virus spliced into the vaccina virus (small pox virus). Effective for fox, raccoons, dogs, and coyotes. Several million tested in the USA and Europe. No adverse effects on target or non-target animals. No public health problem if humans are exposed. Licensed for use by governments in the US. Wildlife Rabies Vaccination Background Oral vaccination and related cost effectiveness: Swiss vaccinated their fox population - say "yes". Due to the increased costs associated with a rabies epidemic in fox population. Increased costs associated with a rabies epidemic include animal diagnostic costs, human treatments, health department consultations, education, increased vaccinations for domestic pets, quarantine of exposed animals, and the economic impact on hunting and tourism. Wildlife Rabies Vaccination Background The state of New Jersey - created an immune barrier at Cape May in front of the advancing epidemic. It worked for a while! Then budget cuts. Wildlife Rabies Vaccination Background The state of Massachusetts created an immune barrier at Cape Cod. It distributed baits in many ways at differing densities. Wildlife Rabies Vaccination Background Ontario has a long history with V-RG and plans to continue to use it to keep raccoon rabies at bay. Arguments for control Arguments Against Control Possible in theory. Hawaii, and Australia Biologic threats: Movement by people and animals Threat to livestock, and public health No people have contracted raccoon rabies strain. Administrative threats: Consistent effort needed every year, legislative support, tax on private land, interstate movement of raccoons, rehabilitors, law enforcement priority, and prosecutor priority. MI: Can protect 15sq. mile in the barrier for every sq. mi. vaccinated. Environmentally friendly and humane. "Let nature alone" New DNR policy on raccoon relocation:
MVMA, Mich, Humane Soc., Rabies Working Group argued for no rehabilitation. DNR has decided upon only release in "country of origin." What about oral rabies vaccine in Michigan? Immune barrier to protect 15 sq. mi. for every 1 in the barrier. What if there is an outbreak behind the barrier? Ring vaccination R a b ie s in D o m e s tic A n im a ls , 1 9 5 5 -2 0 0 0 50 R a b ie s in D o m e s tic A n im a ls b y M o n th , 2 0 0 0
C a ts C a ttle Dogs 40 30 Cases 20 10 0 Jan Feb M ar Apr M ay Jun Jul Aug Sep O ct Nov D ec ...
View Full Document
This note was uploaded on 02/23/2012 for the course AGRICULTUR 200 taught by Professor Staff during the Fall '11 term at Rutgers.
- Fall '11