32751 - An Introduction to Cancer Therapy With Hadron...

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An Introduction to Cancer Therapy With Hadron Radiation Andrew M. Sessler Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Berkeley, CA 94720 May, 2008
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Contents 1. History 2. X-Ray Machines 3. Why Hadrons? Which Hadrons? 4. Various Hadron Facilities 5. Experience at the HIMAC 6. Alternatives 7. Conclusions
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1. History of Hadron Therapy 1. First treatment by the Lawrence's of their mother (X-rays) (1937). Seemed to cure an inoperable uterine cancer, but probably the malady was mis-diagnosed. Nevertheless it started the field of radiation treatment of cancer. 2. J.S. Stone and John Lawrence (both MDs) used neutrons for therapy in patients, starting in late 1938, with a major program (250 patients) starting in 1940. Quoting Stone: “Distressing late effects” and “Neutron therapy…should not be continued” No further neutron work for 25 years…
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1. History of Hadron Therapy (Cont) Review article, Alfred Smith, “Proton Therapy”, Phys. Med. Biol. 51 , R491 (2006) 3. Linacs for X-rays built by Siemens and Varian in the US 4. Most patients are treated by X-rays. World-wide there are 10,000 linacs and 4 million patients a year treated. 5. Hadron therapy (Bragg peak) suggested by Bob Wilson in Radiology 47 , 487 (1946) Pioneered in Berkeley and Harvard. Now 6 hadron (proton) facilities in US; two under construction, more to come.
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QuickTime™ and a  decompressor are needed to see this picture. The Bragg peak curve from the original Wilson paper.
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1. History of Hadron Therapy (Cont) Review article: Joseph Castro, LBL-35418 (1993) 6. Heavy ions carefully developed at the Bevalac in the 70’s. From basic biology to patient treatment. All was really R&D. Even on patients: What cancers responded best? What doses? Etc. Many scientists: Joe Castro, Bill Chu, John Lyman,Cornelius Tobias, Eleanor Blakely, Ted Philips, and many others. Bevalac was used 2/3 for medicine and only 1/3 for nuclear physics (but laid the basis for RHIC, LHC).
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1. History of Hadron Therapy (Cont) 7. On the basis of the Berkeley work HIMAC was constructed. It is the first dedicated facility to ion treatment. There are none in US, but more are being built in Japan (eventually 50) and some are being built in Europe. 8. Pion and neutron therapy have been employed in the past and are not the method generally of interest. (Although neutron treatment has just started again at Fermilab)
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1. History (Cont): A Partial List of Hadron Facilities Loma Linda (Fermilab), Mass General (IBA), Crocker (Davis) Jacksonville, Texas (Hitachi), Indiana (NSF), TRIUMF (Canada) In Asia: HIMAC, Chiba (carbon), Tsukuba (Hitachi), Wanje (China) Almost completed: Hyogo (Near Kobe)(carbon) Planned facilities: (all carbon)Sendei, Tokyo, Nagoya, Hiroshima and Kyushu, Seoul, Austron (Australia). In Europe:
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32751 - An Introduction to Cancer Therapy With Hadron...

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