2AC Orientalism Kritik 1/3
Permutation solves – taking concrete action to reverse imperialism is a prerequisite
Bilgin, IR Professor at Bikent, ‘5
(“Regional Security in the Middle East: A Critical Perspective” p 60-61)
Admittedly, providing a critique of existing approaches to security, revealing those hidden assumptions
and normative projects embedded in Cold War Security Studies, is only a first step.
In other words, from a
critical security perspective, self-reflection, thinking and writing
are not enough in themselves. They should be
compounded by other forms of practice (that is, action taken on the ground).
It is indeed crucial for students of
critical approaches to re-think security in both theory and practice by pointing to possibilities for change immanent in world
politics and suggesting emancipatory practices if it is going to fulfil the promise of becoming a 'force of change' in world
politics. Cognisant of the need to find and suggest alternative practices to meet a broadened security
agenda without adopting militarised or zero-sum thinking and practices, students of critical approaches
to security have suggested the imagining, creation and nurturing of security communities as
(Booth 1994a; Booth and Vale 1997).
Although Devetak's approach to the theory/practice relationship echoes critical approaches' conception of theory as a form of
practice, the latter seeks to go further in shaping global practices. The distinction Booth makes between 'thinking about
thinking' and 'thinking about doing' grasps the difference between the two. Booth (1997:114) writes:
Thinking about thinking is important, but, more urgently, so is thinking about doing…. Abstract ideas
about emancipation will not suffice: it is important for Critical Security Studies to engage with the real
by suggesting policies, agents, and sites of change, to help humankind,
in whole and in part, to move away
from its structural wrongs.
In this sense, providing a critique of existing approaches to security, revealing those hidden assumptions
and normative projects embedded in Cold War Security Studies, is only a firs
t (albeit crucial) step. It is
vital for the students of critical approaches to re-think security in both theory and practice.
The way orientalism manifests itself is as important – criticizing US imperial presence in other
nations in the best starting point
Rotter, History Professor at Colgate, 2K
(October “Orientalism and US Diplomatic History” Vol 105, No 4)
For diplomatic historians
, the link between cause and effect is crucial
, and this constitutes another area of
disagreement with Said. In a perceptive 1995 Diplomatic History essay, Melvyn P. Leffler complained that "the post-
modernist emphasis on culture, language, and rhetoric often diverts attention from questions of
causation and agency.
" The problem with discourse theory
specifically "is that although we might learn that