TOPICALITY 20 - WNDI 2010 1 Topicality Topicality 1NC...

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WNDI 2010 1 Topicality Topicality
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1NC – Substantial = 50% A. Interpretation: a substantial reduction in military presence is 50% H.R.1269, 1993 , “Comprehensive Base Closure Reform and Recovery Act of 1993,” http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/F?c103:1:./temp/~c103E1L8RN:e2810: (a) CLEANUP SCHEDULE FOR CERTAIN BASES ON NATIONAL PRIORITIES LIST- (1) Before a military installation described in subsection (c) is closed or substantial reductions in its operations have occurred, at least 75 percent of the remedial action required on the installation pursuant to the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (42 U.S.C. 9601 et seq.) shall be completed. (2) Not later than two years after a military installation described in subsection (c) is closed or substantial reductions in its operations have occurred, all of the remedial action required on the installation pursuant to such Act shall be completed. (b) MEANING OF SUBSTANTIAL REDUCTIONS- For purposes of subsection (a), substantial reductions in the operations of a military installation shall be considered to have occurred if more than 50 percent of the personnel assigned to the installation , including employees and members of the Armed Forces, have been reassigned and moved to another installation. Military presence includes personnel, equipment, training, visits, and intelligence Bradford Dismukes , analyst at the Center for Naval Analyses, 3- 1994 , “National Security Strategy and Forward Presence: Implications for Acquisition and Use of Forces,” Center for Naval Analyses, http://cna.org/sites/default/files/research/2793019200.pdf A principal aim of presence is to make crisis response unnecessary, just as the latter seeks to eliminate the need for large-scale combat. In addition to permanent and rotational forces forward on the ground, forces deployed at sea, and prepositioned equipment, the means of overseas presence are: Exercises and training of U.S. forces with those of friends and allies • Unilateral training by U.S. force s on foreign soil • U.S. C3I systems , especially in their bilateral and multilateral roles • Arrangements for the access by U.S. forces to facilities overseas Stationing and visits abroad by senior U.S. military officials • Visits to ports and airfields by U.S. naval and air forces • Public shows by U.S. demonstration teams such as the Thunderbirds and a host of public affairs activities including military musical groups • Staff-to-staff talks and studies with foreign military organizations and analytical groups • U.S. participation on multilateral staffs Exchanges of military people between the U.S. and friends and allies • Military training of foreign personnel in the U.S. and in their home countries • Training of military officers of former totalitarian and some developing states in the roles of the military in a civil society • Foreign military sales and funding and co-production of military equipment with other nations.122
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TOPICALITY 20 - WNDI 2010 1 Topicality Topicality 1NC...

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