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Unformatted text preview: advocay Westminster 20 The Neg must defend a concrete policy thats an opportunity cost to the plan A) Fairnessthere are an infinite number of frameworks that the Aff cant predict which rigs the game for the negative MEARSHEIMER 1995 (John, Professor of Political Science at the University of Chicago, International Security, Winter 94/95) Nevertheless, critical theorists readily acknowledge that realism has been the dominant interpretation of international politics for almost seven hundred years. Realism is a name for a discourse of power and rule in modern global life. Still, critical theory allows for change, and there is no reason, according to the theory anyway, why a communitarian discourse of peace and harmony cannot supplant the realist discourse of security competition and war. In fact, change is always possible with critical theory because it allows for an unlimited number of discourses, and it makes no judgment about the merit or staying power of any particular one . Also, critical theory makes no judgement about whether human beings are hard-wired to be good or bad, but instead treats people as infinitely changeable. The key to how they think and behave is the particular software program that individuals carry around in their heads, and those can be changed. In essence, critical theorists hope to replace the widely used realist software package with new software that emphasizes communitarian norms. Once that switch has been made, states will cooperate with each other and world politics will be more peaceful. B) Policy implications are necessary to test theorya legitimate alternative must describe the consequences of implementing specific change because rhetorical criticism can make the world worse the impact is education and it turns the case FEAVER 2001 (Peter, Asst. Prof of Political Science at Duke University, Twenty-First Century Weapons Proliferation, p 178) At the same time, virtually all good theory has implications for policy. Indeed, if no conceivable extension of the theory leads to insights that would aid those working in the real world, what can be good about good theory? Ignoring the policy implications of theory is often a sign of intellectual laziness on the part of the theorist. It is hard work to learn about the policy world and to make the connections from theory to policy. Often, the skill sets do not transfer easily from one domain to another, so a formidable theorist can show embarrassing naivete when it comes to the policy domain he or she putatively studies. he or she putatively studies....
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