AMST_101_Final_Key_Terms - Operation Wetback: A...

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Operation Wetback : A repatriation program to remove illegal Mexican immigrants (Wetbacks) from the Southwest. From 1944 to 1954 (the decade of the Wetback) Mexican immigration had increased 6,000 percent. (That’s a lot!) Because of this massive migration, the commissioner of Immigration and Naturalization Service, Gen. Joseph May Swing, (supported by the US government) began a search and seizure of all illegal Mexican immigrants. Starting at the Rio Grande, the reported totals of illegal aliens removed daily was near 1,100. Deportees were taken by rail, bus, truck, and boat back to Durango, Veracruz, and Ojinaga. In the Fall of 1954, government funding diminished, and the operation trailed off. Reportedly up to 1,300,000 immigrants were returned, though official totals only neared 800,000. LA Watts Riot : Starting August 1, 1965, and lasting 6 days, this large-scale civil disorder witnessed 34 people killed, 1,100 injured, 4,000 arrested, and an estimated $100 million in damages. There was a heat wave nearing 100 degrees passing through Los Angeles, and unemployment in the Watts area was up to nearly 40%. Black clergy and Civil Rights activists had been outspoken about alleged police violence, setting the stage for civil unrest. The rioting began when a white Policeman on a motorcycle pulled over African American Marquette Frye, whom someone reported was driving drunk. While police questioned Frye and his brother, a group of people began to gather. A struggle ensued shortly after Frye's mother Rena arrived on the scene, resulting in the arrest of all three family members. Police used their batons to subdue Frye and his brother, angering the growing crowd. Shortly after the police left, tensions boiled over and the rioting began. Most of the damage was confined to businesses that had caused resentment in the neighborhood due to the perception of unfairness. Homes were not attacked, although some caught fire due to proximity to other fires. A governmental commission investigated the riots, identifying the causes as high unemployment, poor schools, and other inferior living conditions. The government made little effort to address the problems or repair damages. Some commentators claim that the riots arose out of frustration that the promised opportunities of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 had not materialized. Hart-Cellar Act of 1965 : Also known as the Immigration Act of 1965, this Act became law on July 1st, 1968. Under the Act, 170,000 immigrants from the Eastern Hemisphere were to be granted residency, with no more than 20,000 per country. One hundred twenty thousand immigrants from the Western Hemisphere, with no “national limitations,” were also to be admitted. The significance of this bill was that future immigrants were to be welcomed because of their skills/professions, and not for their countries of origin. The main reason the Immigration Act was the Civil Rights Movement, created to rid America of racial/ethnic discrimination. President Johnson signed two other bills, the Civil Rights
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AMST_101_Final_Key_Terms - Operation Wetback: A...

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