Islamic Societies Lecture Notes

Islamic Societies Lecture Notes - Caroline Pinto Everett...

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Caroline Pinto 1/24/12 Everett Rowson Islamic Societies Islamic Societies Lecture Notes 1/24/12 Where : Middle East (Morocco to Pakistan) MENA Maghrib =Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco (North Africa) Khurasan =large province of Iran Transoxania =Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan (Central Asia) Al Andalus =Muslim part of Spain Byzantium =remnants of Roman Empire (Constantinople=capital) When : 600—1300 C.E. Muslim =religion + people who adhere to it Islamic =culture of Middle East ( Islam = “submission to God”) Hijri Calendar =Middle Eastern calendar Year 1= 622 C.E. Year=354 days (lunar calendar) Ramadan =9 th month when Muslims fast Islamic Dynasties 632—661CE: Rightly Guided Caliphs 661—750CE: Umayyads 750—1258CE: Abbasids Language Semitic =language most closely related to Hebrew Arabic =primary language of Middle East Coptic =liturgical language Diglossia =written language is different than spoken one Many different dialects ‘U=guttural “a” sound before “u,” often transcribed as “o” Syriac =form of Aramaic (written) Afroasiatic =includes Egyptian/Coptic, Berber, etc. (used to be called Hamitic languages) Persian =Indo-European language from Iran Aka Farsi Turkic =includes Ottoman (Turkish), Uzbek, etc. Ataturk started writing Ottoman/Turkish w/ Western alphabet—caused a cultural break
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1/26/12 Names Patronymics =identified w/ father’s name (E.g.) Abū al Qāsim Muhammad ibn ‘Abd Allah al-Makki (Muhammad, father of Qasim and son of ‘Abd Allah, from Mecca) Ibn is sometimes written as “b.” If they don’t have sons, make up a name Sometimes used grandfather’s name instead of father’s Honorifics =honorable titles given to special people (E.g.) Salāh al-Dīn Yūsuf b. Ayyūb (something to do with God Yusuf, son of Ayyub) Women (E.g.) Umm _____ Fatima bint Muhammad (Fatima, mother of ____ and daughter of Muhammad) Empires Byzantines Called themselves the Roman Empire Constantinople =capital, founded by Constantine Greek =language Rūm =modern-day Turkey (version of “Rome”) Included Turkey, Syria, Egypt, the Balkins Justinian =emperor who reigned from 527—565CE o Founded the Hagia Sophia o Wrote extensive legislation Religion =mainly Christian, a few Jews and pagans o Christological =arguments over divinity of Jesus, divided church + arguably made it easier for Arabs to conquer Byzantines Nestorians =focused on Jesus’ human side (now called Church of the East b/c were pushed into Sasanian empire) Monophysites =focused on Jesus’ divine side (aka Jacobites, popular in Syria) Melkites ”=compromised Jesus’ human + divine side (Orthodox Christians) Almost always at war w/ Sasanians—tired both of them out Sasanians Founded around 226CE Ctesiphon =capital, now in Iran Talmud =oral law, written in Aramaic (there’s a Syrian + Babylonian one)
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This note was uploaded on 02/23/2012 for the course MAP IS 101 taught by Professor Everettrowson during the Spring '12 term at NYU.

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Islamic Societies Lecture Notes - Caroline Pinto Everett...

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