UNTR Cp. 3 - 9/8/2009 CHAPTER 3: THE HUMAN BODY: ARE WE...

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9/8/2009 1 CHAPTER 3: THE HUMAN BODY: ARE WE REALLY WHAT WE EAT? Distinguish between appetite and hunger, describing the mechanisms that stimulate each. Describe what is meant by the saying "We are what we eat " Describe what is meant by the saying "We are what we eat." Identify two functions of the cell membrane. Draw a picture of the gastrointestinal tract, labeling all major and accessory organs. Describe the contribution of each organ of the gastrointestinal system to the digestion, absorption, and elimination of food. Identify the source and function of the key enzymes involved in digesting foods. Discuss the causes, symptoms, and treatments of: gastroesophageal reflux disease; ulcers; celiac disease; food allergies; and irritable bowel syndrome. List three warning signs of dehydration resulting from diarrhea Each of the body’s cell is a self- contained, living entity— An island to itself but dependent on the water and land about it.
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9/8/2009 2 The Cell! Cells require nutrients Each cell depends on the rest of cells to supply its needs • Energy to do the work of the cell • Oxygen to burn the energy • Water to maintain the living environment • Building blocks and control systems • Essential nutrients
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9/8/2009 3 WHY DO WE EAT ??????? •Energy for body processes Ht f bd • Heat for body temperature regulation • Building blocks for growth and Food provides us with maintenance of body tissues
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9/8/2009 4 Why Do We Want to Eat? Sigh Sme Sight Smell Food is intimately connected to our sense of taste , but also stimulates our senses of Touch Hearing TASTE AND NUTRITION •Sweet •Sour •Bitter •Salty Taste buds on the tongue detect five basic •Umami (savory) chemical tastes:
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9/8/2009 5 TASTE AND NUTRITION Resting Distilled water Sugar Something sour Something bitter From classic studies of J.E. Steiner, in Taste and Development: The Genesis of Sweet Preferences . Ponder??? Instinctive liking for sugar, fat, and salt ??Can lead to preference for sweet, salty, and fatty tastes. ??Lead to over consumption of foods
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9/8/2009 6 Why Do We Want to Eat? Appetite : psychological desire to eat certain foods •Aroused by environmental cues Hunger : physiological sensation that prompts us to eat • Regulated by internal cues Satiety : the feeling of being full Anorexia: Physiological need for food but no appetite When the brain’s cortex perceives hunger sensations you want to eat The conscious mind can override such signal override such signals • Therefore, a person can choose to delay eating despite hunger •Or to eat when hunger is absent
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9/8/2009 7 Nerve receptors in the stomach and small intestine send signals to the brain to indicate if they are full or empty The signals that prompt us to eat include The Blood glucose levels trigger the release of hormones called insulin and glucagon hypothalamus region of the brain receives these signals Blood Carries Chemical Messengers: HORMONES Chemicals produced in specialized glands that travel in the bloodstream to target organs in other parts of the body.
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This note was uploaded on 02/23/2012 for the course SOC 101 taught by Professor Prof. during the Spring '11 term at University of Nevada, Las Vegas.

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UNTR Cp. 3 - 9/8/2009 CHAPTER 3: THE HUMAN BODY: ARE WE...

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