Lecture _8, Part II.doc - SOC 101 Principles of Sociology...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–4. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
1 SOC 101 - Principles of Sociology Lecture Notes #8 - Part II Social Structures: Social Interaction, Groups and Organizations 9) The Nature of Groups and Group Interaction . A group is a collection of people that have common or shared expectations and who interact together in a meaningful or purposeful way. A group is characterized by the following: a. a distinctive , unique set of relationships, b. mutual interdependence, c. a feeling that the behavior/actions of others in the group matter or are relevant or have consequences, d. a sense of group solidarity, group cohesion, that is, the "we" versus "them" attitude or in-group versus out-group. For example, social psychologists explain discrimination using the "in-group" and "out-group" dichotomy; sociologists view discrimination in terms of access or control of resources or power; hence denying access or domination by the group that controls resources. Groups help to shape both the personality and the behavior of individual members. As a result, group life is important for the well-being of the individual and the stability of the society as a whole. 10) The Nature of Groups. Groups are classified into: a. In-groups and out-groups,
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
2 b. Social networks, and c. Reference groups. In-groups and out-groups . All groups develop characteristics that separate or distinguish the "us" from "them" or the "we" from "them". In such situations, members or participants view themselves as an "in-group" and other members or participants as the "out-group". In-groups are groups toward which members feel loyalty or commitment. And out-groups are groups toward which individuals feel a dislike, hatred, antagonism or hostility. In-groups encourage or promise a feeling or sense of togetherness and solidarity among members as well as maintain a social boundary--separating them from non-members. The social boundary reinforces or generates a sense of belonging or the in- group cohesion. Group cohesion may be created and sustained through ritual practices, e.g. induction or initiation rites in sororities and fraternities or ritual pollution in the case of castes in India, the so-called untouchables. The social boundary sometimes gives way to loyalty and feelings of superiority of in-group versus the out-group. The in-group tends to stress or emphasize its own similarity and to exaggerate its differences with the out- group. According to social psychologists, this provides the basis for rivalries (e.g. in sports, rivalries between competing teams) or prejudices, discrimination or hatred. Hence, in-group membership leads to discrimination as strong identification and loyalties with in-groups inevitably lead to favoring members of the in- group against the out-group.
Background image of page 2
3 Dividing groups into in-group versus out-group or "we" versus "them", undermines social diversity or pluralism in multicultural societies such as the U.S. Social Networks or Networking
Background image of page 3

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Image of page 4
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

Page1 / 12

Lecture _8, Part II.doc - SOC 101 Principles of Sociology...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 4. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online