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BMGT20050 Review - The external business environment is all...

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The external business environment is all factors that affect an organization’s boundaries. External is the macro environment (politics, technology, international) or task environment (competitors, suppliers, customers). PEST: political, economical, social, and technological events that impact an organization. Involved in looking into the future. The political environment consists of democracies, communists, and theocratic. Democracy- accessible legal systems and laws. Communist- single party political systems; centrally controlled; emphasize worker’s right, equality, and ideology. Theocratic- governed by religion; political leaders are also religious leaders. The economic environment consists of interconnections between the economies of different countries. Economic markets consist of open markets, centrally planned, and combinations. Open markets- free markets consisting of competing forces (USA). Centrally planned- resources are allocated by the government (Soviet Union). Combinations- mix between the two (current China). Culture is the learned values, assumptions, perceptions, and behaviors of a society. It contains three levels- perceived culture; common values, attitudes, and norms; and underlying assumptions. Culture is learned, shared, organized, and systematic. Iceberg of culture: top- artifacts, middle- exposed values, bottom- underlying assumptions. Artifacts are what we see that represents the culture. Exposed values are what we say and promote but not what we do. Underlying assumptions are what we believe and are felt but not spoken. Comparison of organizational culture and national culture: organizational cultures are shared values, socialized into, and partly involved in. National cultures are shared meanings, born into, and completely immersed into. Convergence/divergence: the extent to which cultures are becoming more similar or more different. Acculturation: the changes in people who relocate from one culture to another. Prejudice is when we hold negative preconceptions of others. Ethnocentrism is when our view of the world places us at the center; we are better than others.
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Cultural dimension studies of value orientation include: Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck’s framework, Hofstede’s study, Schwartz values survey, Trompenaar's dimensions, and GLOBE. Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck’s framework consists of six dimensions Environment: people have the need to dominate and control nature, to subject to nature, or to work with nature to maintain harmony. Nature of people: people are inherently good, evil, or a mix between the two. Responsibility: individualist- responsibility is one’s self and their family. Collateral- responsibility for one’s own group that is arranged differently. Hierarchal- responsibility for one owns group that is arranged as a hierarchy.
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