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chinas politics - China's Reform Era I Bold New...

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China’s Reform Era I. Bold New Vision: “Socialist Modernization” -after the establishment of power, they had vision socialist modernization -turning point: **3 rd plemium in December 1978 -revolutionary socialism to modernization -eve of cultural revolution: China’s need to take forward modernization in defense, science, industry and agriculture -Deng’s rise made the implementation possible -Deng with his practice factions did not think just a mere change is enough -dramatic change “huan ze” -people refer to the two eras as after liberation, and after reform -pragmatism: guiding vision – “black cat, white cat” -color does not matter as long as a cat catches rats -“all I care is pragmatism – I don’t care about litmust test,” Deng -not like Hua -fundamental changes Shifting Emphasis -fouding moment for contemporary China 1. ideology material incentives -trying to get people to work harder -increasing productivity 2. class struggle social harmony -the main struggle of cultural revolution, especially about bourgeoisie -there is a social harmony to be promoted individuals might be criminals, but never about class -a danger from a class no longer exists -no criticism of people on the street more peaceful life 3. ends justify means rules and laws -achieving political goals whatever means necessary emphasis on procedural justifiability and commitment to rules around 1978 to 1979 -life in China fundamentally shifted -shortly after this, amounts to the 2 nd revolution II. Key Areas of Reforms A. Educational System Rebuilt -higher education (universities) had been shut down by CR -university campuses are where the revolution began -starting with the restoration of entrance exams (competitive) -shifting the focus from virtuocracy to meritocracy (no more litmus test) -very competitive -expansion of resources to be used in the classrooms -during Mao, foreign materials like physics were banned -during Deng, allowed B. Intellectuals’ Role Redefined 1
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-target during the cultural revolution, anti-rightist labeled -Dent thought they were crucial for science and technology modernization -a movement similar to 100 flowers -in the past, we saw intellectuals as outsiders. Intellectuals are, however, workers, who work with brains -no need to be ostracized -no more taboos lifted from debates still within limit though -was afraid that one party system will be attacked -some talked about implementations. But not really about fundamental cores -top priority on economic modernization -clarity comes out from when Deng struggled with Hua and 2 whatevers factions shi dan interaction demanded democracy -Deng let this happen, thinking it would weaken his enemy – however when he was in power, he was more concerned about social order and challenges -came up with 4 upholds 4 fundamental principles (or “4 upholds”) 1. Socialist road 2. People’s democratic dictatorship 3. CCP leadership 4. Marxism-Leninism-Mao Zedong Thought C. Legal System Reconsidered -China during Mao was mostly lawless
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