Political Science FINAL REVIEW

Political Science FINAL REVIEW - Political Science Final...

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Political Science Final Review Exam 1 and Exam 2 material Electoral Rules Options constitutional convention considered for electing the president? - Congress was concerned with how to insure independence - Direct popular election never really caught on because the framers were concerned about how smart the electorate was. - Indirect selection via electors—this was preferred because popular sentiment was expressed, but it did not dictate the outcome. Differences between the Electoral College, then and now. Then: - Each state had one electoral vote for each of its representatives and senators. - Electors would meet and vote, casting two ballots - Person who received the most votes was president, the runner up was the VP. o If there was no majority, then the House would choose among the top 5 and each state delegation received one vote. o If there was a tie for 2 nd , then the Senate chose the VP o The 12 th amendment changed all of this. Now: - Winner needs 270/538 electoral votes - Each state has one electoral vote for each representative and Senator to win - Electors are chosen by the state to go and vote - Some states assign these proportionally, but most are winner take all. - Electors can technically vote for whomever they want to, but this is not done. - House of reps decides a tie Early selection methods: parties and “King Caucus” - By the 1790s, parties were starting to form in Congress. These party alliances would meet separately to discuss potential candidates - Selection of electors was also starting to take on a partisan bias. - By 1800, partisan congressional caucuses had taken on the task of selecting their parties nominees—this was derogatorily referred to as tha king caucus . The process was never really formalized. - By 1820, caucuses were really on their way out as a method of choosing candidates, because: o The decline of original partisan alignments that had begun the process o The original leaders of this were on longer on the scene o Growth of party organizations in the states led to a decentralization o Andrew Jackson vocally opposed this system Types of primaries - Open primary- voters may vote in any primary, regardless of political party affiliation.
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- Modified-Open primary- voter can declare which party they will be voting for on primary day, and must only vote for that ballot - Closed primary- people can only vote in a specific parties primary if they are registered as a member of that party - Modified-closed primary- Same as closed, but independents can participate Effects of electoral college on campaigns and outcomes - Our elections are federal rather than national - Influences how campaigning is done - Tends to magnify the Presidential victory margin. Arguments for and against the Electoral College
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Political Science FINAL REVIEW - Political Science Final...

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