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Unformatted text preview: QUIZ 4 Development of Play Defining Characteristics of Play • Positive effect • Active engagement o Deep involvement without distraction • Intrinsic motivation o The child decides the pace, flow of play • Freedom from external rules o Children create the rules • Attention to process o Maximizes discover and flexibility in the direction and duration of play • Non-literality o Between ages 2 and 3 children can distinguish play from reality o Children can play with themes/ideas/objects that are not reality The Decline of Play • 1989 survey said that 96% of schools had at least 1 recess o in 1999 only 70% did o Today, this number is probably significantly lower • Occurring because of: o Academic enrichment activities o Hurried lifestyle o working/single parents o Media o School competition (private schools, college) o Unsafe neighborhoods To Encourage Play • Provide children with: o Ample, unscheduled, independent, non-screen time o Active child-centered play o True toys to use imagination o Opportunities to share in unstructured play with adults o Play groups o Adults that listen, care, and guide o Opportunities to read with a caring person o Safe spaces/places to play o Opportunities to develop many areas of interest Benefits of Play • Learn cultural norms and expectations, discover workings of the world, negotiate the way through surroundings • Acquire and practice new skills; stimulate senses • Teachers about self o Mastery, control, competence, self-efficacy, pride o How to use muscles, hand-eye coordination, mastery over body o How to cope with uncomfortable emotions • Teaches about others o Empathy o TOM • Creativity, imagination, practice adult roles • Language skills o Express feelings verbally and nonverbally o Practice following rules and learn about consequences o Build friendships, learn to work in groups, share, negotiate, problem solve Peer Sociability • Onlooker behaviors o Child watches others at play but does not join in activity • Solitary/independent play o Child unaware of others playing nearby o Decreases with age, but majority at 3-4 years old; not usually cause for concern • Parallel play o Close proximity, but no influence on each other; no control over who may join • Associative play o Separate activities but share comments and toys; no division of labor; children play similarly; everyone may control who can join the play • Cooperative play o Play oriented toward a common goal; children take on different roles • Balance between nonsocial/parallel and associative/cooperative at ages 3-6 Cognitive Play Categories • Functional/sensorimotor play o Simple, repetitive motor movements o With or without objects o Ages 0-2 • Constructive play o Creating and constructing something with objects o Ages 3-6 • Pretend/dramatic play o Act out everyday and imaginary roles (symbolic function) o Ages 2-6 • Imaginary playmates: creative outlets o Children tend to have better verbal skills and better understanding of different points of view; less shy and more sociable •...
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- Fall '10
- Psychology, Cortisol, conduct disorder, Outcomes of Child Care