201 Lecture notes Autumn 2008_Part5

201 Lecture notes Autumn 2008_Part5 - C. Water has many...

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21 a. Calcium, Magnesium, Iron b. Chloride, carbonate, sulfate c. Problems: (1) Scale: heating hard water = precipitates "lime-away" = phosphoric acid (2) poor cleaning of soaps (3) Color and flavor reactions in foods (a) Iron (Fe) is main problem: reacts with fruit, veg. pigments to form black colors or: reacts with sulfate to cause rotten egg aromas (sulfides) Corn is an excellent example. Corn cans are frequently lined with plastic or enamel to prevent the corn from reacting with any stray iron molecules from the steel in the can. d. Softened water: (1) Water is passed over "exchange" resins which exchange sodium ions for calcium, magnesium and iron. (Recharged using concentrated solutions of NaCl) V. Summary A. Water is a major component of most foods B. Because it is an excellent solvent, many of the components of a food exist in solution (dissolved).
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Unformatted text preview: C. Water has many unique properties in regards to how it heats, cools, etc. D. Since water is used in food processing, it is a potential source of contamination. 22 ============================================================ SIMPLE CARBOHYDRATES IN FOODS II. Nomenclature (naming) A. Carbo hydrate : carbo = carbon hydrate = water 1. carbohydrate = hydrates of carbon 2. general formula = ( C(H 2 O)) N 3. Most common: 6 carbons = C 6 H 12 O 6 a. glucose, fructose etc. B. Single sugar molecules 1. monosaccharides a. glucose (common = dextrose) b. fructose ( " = levulose) 23 c. galactose C. Two molecules linked 1. disaccharides a. glucose--fructose = sucrose b. glucose--galactose = lactose 24 c. glucose--glucose = maltose D. Many molecules linked: 1. polysaccharides a. starch glu--glu--gluetc 25 amylose amylopectin b. cellulose "...
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201 Lecture notes Autumn 2008_Part5 - C. Water has many...

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