31 Developed in England in 1976; by accident. 110 animal and human studies B. Role of simple carbohydrates: Texture of foods 1. Crystal formation 2. Influences appearance and texture of candies and frozen desserts 3. Fudge and other confections depend on proper crystal size to have the correct mouth feel. C. Color and flavor reactions—very important to food acceptability1. Caramelizationa. Usually intentionalb. Heating mono and disaccharides c. Color and Flavor affected (1) brown colors (2) caramel or "burnt sugar" flavors d. Common in candies, toast Dulce de leche = milk candy = heated sweetened condensed milk2. Maillard Browning or Maillard Reaction a. Maybe intentional, but usually not: it is undesirable b. Requires the presence of protein or amino acidsc. Only certain types of sugars = reducing(1) glucose
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