81 Distilled Spirits: 1) Same, except that Hops are not added. Sour “mash” allows for the production of a small amount of lactic acid also. Typically corn, rice, potatoes, wheat can be used. Sometimes molasses (results in“rum”), sometimes cactus juice! = tequila
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82 2) After fermentation the mash is heated to 172 deg. F . EtOH/water (95%EtOH/5% water) azeotrope boils off at this temp. It is condensed back to a liquid. In crude terms this is done in a “still” -- technical term is “distillation”. Produces 190 proof “white lightning” or “Everclear”. Some liquors are distilled multiple times—more expensive. Liquor at 190 Proof is too concentrated to drink straight, so it is commonly diluted with water to about 89-90 proof. Flavoring: directly add or store to flavor: no flavorings = vodka juniper berries = gin burned oak barrels = bourbon used/burned oak barrels = scotch