201 Lecture notes Autumn 2008_Part27

201 Lecture notes Autumn 2008_Part27 - 2. Lard a. Also...

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131 2. Lard a. Also hydrogenated b. Fatty acids are "shuffled" = transesterification Because of their ability to "shorten" in a superior fashion, lard and plastic fats are preferred in the baking industry. 3. Butter or Margarine a. Less "workable" at room temperature in most cases b. Both contain small amounts of water 4. Vegetable oil
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132 a. Works too well-- creates a "mealy" texture b. Can overcome by careful manipulation of ingredients V. Formulations A. Typical = blend flour and fat source add water, blend B. Most recent innovation = blend wheat starch with other materials add purified wheat gluten + water LEAVENING AGENTS II. Leavens A. Any gas which causes a dough to be light and porous B. Types 1. Air 2. Steam 3. Carbon Dioxide
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133 III. Air A. Incorporated during the mixing process or carried in with an ingredient (plastic fats ) B. Generates only a small increase in volume 1. Due to thermal expansion: 72 degrees to 350 degrees 2. (PV = nRT) Approx. 33% increase in gas volume C. Hardly ever used alone as a leaven
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201 Lecture notes Autumn 2008_Part27 - 2. Lard a. Also...

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