10-17-11_chemnaturegeneB

10-17-11_chemnaturegeneB - It is not the strongest of the...

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It is not the strongest of the species that survives, nor the most intelligent that survives. It is the one that is the most adaptable to change. Charles Darwin Information is the resolution of uncertainty. Claude Shannon
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Announcements Quiz 6 is due Friday at noon. Exam 3 is next Monday, 10/24 at 8 pm in PHYS 114 and 112. It will cover from 9/28 to 10/19 lectures. A review for the exam is available on Blackboard.
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Now What? We have ATP and NADPH Light independent reaction • Can make a carbohydrate out of CO 2
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Calvin-Benson Cycle Six molecules of CO 2 are fixed by RuBP carboxylase (or Rubisco) to a 5 carbon compound, RuBP Forms a 6 carbon unstable intermediate Rubisco is the rate-limiting step of photosynthesis, with a turnover rate of only 3/s. Constitutes ~1/2 of the protein mass in plants and is the most abundant protein on Earth.
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Calvin Cycle Unstable 6 carbon intermediate splits into two PGA (3-phosphoglycerate) molecules The ATP from the light reaction is used to phosphorylate PGA into 1,3 bis-phosphoglycerate (BPG) All of this is taking place in the chloroplast stroma
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Calvin Cycle The phosphorylated BPG uses the NADPH formed from the light dependent cycle BPG is reduced into glyceraldehyde 3- phosphate (GAP) Out of the 12 GAP molecules that have been formed from the 12 PGA molecules, 2 GAP molecules will go on to make carbohydrates in one of 2 ways 1) GAP can be transported out into the cytosol, where it will be converted to glucose and sucrose 2) GAP can also be used to make starch in the stroma of chloroplasts Starch is generated by reversing the reactions of glycolysis to make glucose- 1 phosphate, which is added to the starch granule
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Start with RuBP CO2 and Rubisco are used to convert RuBP into the six carbon intermediate 6 carbon intermed. splits into PGA Use ATP to phosphorylate BPG Use NADPH to reduce BPG into GAP 2 GAP can go on to synthesize sucrose/starch molecules Other 10 GAP is converted into RuBP with the help of ATP Start the cycle all over again! 6 CO2+ 18 ATP + 12 NADPH +2 H20 →
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10-17-11_chemnaturegeneB - It is not the strongest of the...

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