MICRO CH1

MICRO CH1 - Chapter 1: Microbial Life: Origin and Discovery...

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Chapter 1: Microbial Life: Origin and Discovery What Is a Microbe? Organism that requires microscopes to be seen Microbial cells size- .2 micrometers to millimeters; viruses are much smaller Contradictions: Super-size cells - Thiomargarita namibiensis is size of a fruit fly head Mircrobial communitities – in biofilms microbes have specialized functions & act as multicellular organism Viruses are non-cellular- considered to be microbes but are not fully functional cells 6 major groups studied by microbiologists Prokaryotes: simple, do not have membrane bound organelles 1. Bacteria 2. Archaea Eukaryotes: have all structures inside the cell, much more complex 1. Algae 2. protists 3. Fungi Viruses (non cellular) Microbes Shape Human History Microbes affect food availability - some destroy crops (corn rust, late blight-Irish potato famine) - some make foods (beer, bread, cheese) Microbial diseases change history Black Plague (Bubonic Plague) in Europe killed 1/3 population in 14 th century Small Pox in Americas More soldiers have died from infections in battle wounds
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- Florence Nightingale - convinced British govt to improve army TB (Tuberculosis) in 19 th century AIDS/HIV today Discovery of Microbes Light microscope invented in 1600s Mid-1600s: Robert Hooke observes small eukaryotes with compound microscopes 1 st to use term “cells” Antoni van Leeuwenhoek -1676 : Built simple microscopes Described “wee animalcules” Published first drawings of bacteria (prokaryotes) Microbes Are Living Organisms Spontaneous generation -idea that living organisms originate from non-living matter Microbes arise only No spontaneous generation 1861: Pasteur shows that microbes do not grow in liquid until introduced from outside He disproved this using broth in swan-necked flasks Sterilized broth by boiling, bent necks of flasks so that air could enter but microbes would be caught in neck
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Led to development of methods for controlling growth of microorganisms Pasteurization – use of moderate heat to reduce number of microorganisms in foods (milk, wine- stepped on grapes to get the juices out and then let it ferment; sometimes it would be gross so they asked Pasteur to help with the pasteurization so you can get wine consistantly, oysters) Work with wine industry and studied fermentation Medical Microbiology: Germ Theory of Disease Observations: Germs can infect and grow on food Hypothesis: Can germs infect and grow on food
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This note was uploaded on 02/23/2012 for the course BIOL 2051 taught by Professor Brininstool during the Fall '07 term at LSU.

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MICRO CH1 - Chapter 1: Microbial Life: Origin and Discovery...

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