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MICRO CH4

MICRO CH4 - Chapter 4 Bacterial Culture Growth and...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 4 Bacterial Culture, Growth, and Development Microbial Nutrition • All life requires: • Electron flow to drive all life processes • Drives ions into, out of cells. Hydrogen ion gradients formed, ATP made. • Used to create ATP • Energy, to move electrons • Materials, to make cell parts • Nutrients- CHONPS Electron flow requires: • Source of electrons • Lithotrophs- • Inorganic molecules are electron donors (iron) Organotrophs • Organic molecules are electron donors (glucose) • Ultimate electron acceptor • Inorganic molecules (nitrate or oxygen) • Respiration • Organic molecules (pyruvate) • Fermentation • Source of energy • Phototrophs • Light energy excites electrons • Excited molecules are electron donors • Cemotrophs • Chemicals are electron donors • Oxidation of chemical o Oxidation = donation of electrons • Nutrients • Macronutrients • Major elements in cell macromolecules o C, H, O, N, P, S • Ions necessary for protein function o Mg 2+ , Ca 2+ , Fe 2+ , K + • Micronutrients Trace elements (Co, Cu, Zn, ect) • Growth factors (organic compounds) necessary for enzyme function • Carbon- large amount needed by cells to form organic compounds (amino acids, fatty acids, sugars, & nitrogenase bases) to carry out cellular functions. • Autotrophs- prokaryotes that can make all cellular structures from carbon dioxide in the atmostphere. • Heterotrophs- must obtain carbon from organic compounds. (most prokaryotes) • Nitrogen- needed by cells for amino acids, nitrogen bases, & other cell constituents. • Nitrogen-fixing prokaryotes- capable of using atmospheric nitrogen gas. • Most prokaryotes obtain nitrogen from compounds such as ammonia and nitrate. • Energy sources: • Chemoorganotrophs-energy from oxidation (removing electrons) of organic compounds • Chemolithotrohps – energy from oxidation of inorganic compounds. Only in prokaryotes. Advantage? • Phototrophs- contain pigments that allow them to use light as an energy source . Advantage? Less competition for some specific nutrient • Carbon sources: • Heterotrophs- carbon source is organic carbon compounds • Autotrophs- carbon source is carbon dioxide These terms can be combined to more completely describe an organism. Example- photoautotroph obtains energy from light & carbon from carbon dioxide. Nutrient Uptake • Passive diffusion • Some substances pass freely through membranes o O 2 , CO 2 • Follows gradient of material • Facilitated diffusion • Transporters pass material into/out of cell • Follows gradient of material Nutrient Uptake—Active Transport • ABC Transporters • Use ATP energy...
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MICRO CH4 - Chapter 4 Bacterial Culture Growth and...

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