MICRO CH4

MICRO CH4 - Chapter 4 Bacterial Culture, Growth, and...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 4 Bacterial Culture, Growth, and Development Microbial Nutrition All life requires: Electron flow to drive all life processes Drives ions into, out of cells. Hydrogen ion gradients formed, ATP made. Used to create ATP Energy, to move electrons Materials, to make cell parts Nutrients- CHONPS Electron flow requires: Source of electrons Lithotrophs- Inorganic molecules are electron donors (iron) Organotrophs Organic molecules are electron donors (glucose) Ultimate electron acceptor Inorganic molecules (nitrate or oxygen) Respiration Organic molecules (pyruvate) Fermentation Source of energy Phototrophs Light energy excites electrons Excited molecules are electron donors Cemotrophs Chemicals are electron donors Oxidation of chemical o Oxidation = donation of electrons Nutrients Macronutrients Major elements in cell macromolecules o C, H, O, N, P, S Ions necessary for protein function o Mg 2+ , Ca 2+ , Fe 2+ , K + Micronutrients Trace elements (Co, Cu, Zn, ect) Growth factors (organic compounds) necessary for enzyme function Carbon- large amount needed by cells to form organic compounds (amino acids, fatty acids, sugars, & nitrogenase bases) to carry out cellular functions. Autotrophs- prokaryotes that can make all cellular structures from carbon dioxide in the atmostphere. Heterotrophs- must obtain carbon from organic compounds. (most prokaryotes) Nitrogen- needed by cells for amino acids, nitrogen bases, & other cell constituents. Nitrogen-fixing prokaryotes- capable of using atmospheric nitrogen gas. Most prokaryotes obtain nitrogen from compounds such as ammonia and nitrate. Energy sources: Chemoorganotrophs-energy from oxidation (removing electrons) of organic compounds Chemolithotrohps energy from oxidation of inorganic compounds. Only in prokaryotes. Advantage? Phototrophs- contain pigments that allow them to use light as an energy source . Advantage? Less competition for some specific nutrient Carbon sources: Heterotrophs- carbon source is organic carbon compounds Autotrophs- carbon source is carbon dioxide These terms can be combined to more completely describe an organism. Example- photoautotroph obtains energy from light & carbon from carbon dioxide. Nutrient Uptake Passive diffusion Some substances pass freely through membranes o O 2 , CO 2 Follows gradient of material Facilitated diffusion Transporters pass material into/out of cell Follows gradient of material Nutrient UptakeActive Transport ABC Transporters Use ATP energy...
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This note was uploaded on 02/23/2012 for the course BIOL 2051 taught by Professor Brininstool during the Fall '07 term at LSU.

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MICRO CH4 - Chapter 4 Bacterial Culture, Growth, and...

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