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Chapter 3 Study Guide

Chapter 3 Study Guide - Mark Moeller Period 3 Chapter 3...

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Mark Moeller 1/14/09 Period 3 Chapter 3 Study Guide Alpha particle - positively charged matter, consisting of two neutrons and two protons, that’s emitted as a form of radioactivity from the nuclei of some radioisotopes Beta particle - swiftly moving electron emitted by the nucleus of a radioactive isotope Chain reaction - multiple nuclear fissions, taking place within a certain mass of a fissionable isotope, that release an enormous amount of energy in a short time Conduction - the transmission of electric charge or heat through a conducting medium without perceptible motion of the medium itself Convection - heat transfer in a gas or liquid by the circulation of currents from one region to another Critical mass - amount of fissionable nuclei needed to sustain a nuclear fission chain reaction Electromagnetic radiation - forms of kinetic energy traveling as electromagnetic waves; radio waves, visible light, x-rays, etc. Electron - tiny particle moving around outside the nucleus of an atom; each electron has one unit of negative charge and almost no mass Energy - capacity to do work by performing mechanical, physical, chemical, or electrical tasks or to cause a heat transfer between two objects at different temperatures Gamma rays - a form of ionizing electromagnetic radiation with a high energy content emitted by some radioisotopes; they readily penetrate body tissues Half-life - time needed for one-half of nuclei in a radioisotope to emit its radiation; each radioisotope has a characteristic half-life, which may range from a few millionths of a second to several billion years Heat - total kinetic energy of all the randomly moving atoms, ions, or molecules within a given substance, excluding the overall motion of the whole object; flows from a hot sample to a cold one Isotopes - two or more forms of an element with same #protons but different mass #s due to different #neutrons
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