Chapter 17 Study Guide

Chapter 17 Study Guide - Mark Moeller 1/14/09 Period 3...

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Mark Moeller 1/14/09 Period 3 Chapter 17 Study Guide Bitumen - gooey, black, high-sulfur, heavy oil extracted from tar sand and then upgraded to synthetic fuel oil Breeder nuclear fission reactor - nuclear fission reactor that produces more nuclear fuel than it consumes by converting non-fissionable uranium-238 into fissionable plutonium-239 Coal - solid, combustible mixture of organic compounds with 30-98% carbon by weight, mixed with various amounts of water and small amounts of sulfur and nitrogen compounds Coal gasification - conversion of solid coal to synthetic natural gas (SNG) Coal liquefaction - conversion of solid coal to a liquid hydrocarbon fuel like synthetic gasoline or methanol Crude oil - gooey liquid consisting mostly of hydrocarbon compounds and small amounts of compounds containing oxygen, sulfur, and nitrogen. Deuterium - Fissionable isotope - isotope that can split apart when hit by a neutron at the right speed and thus undergo nuclear fission Kerogen - solid, waxy mixture of hydrocarbons found in soil shale rock. Heating the rock to high temps causes it to vaporize. The vapor is condensed, purified, and sent to a refinery to make gasoline, heating oil, etc. Liquefied natural gas (LNG) - natural gas converted to liquid by cooling to a low temp Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) - mixture of liquefied propane and butane gas removed from natural gas and used as a fuel Meltdown - melting of the core of a nuclear reactor Natural gas - underground deposits of gases consisting of 50-90% by weight methane gas and small amounts of heavier gaseous hydrocarbon compounds like propane and butane Net energy - total amount of useful energy available from an energy resource or energy system over its lifetime, minus the amount of energy used (1 st energy law), automatically wasted (2 nd ), and unnecessarily wasted in finding, processing, concentrating, and transporting it to users Nuclear energy - energy released when atomic nuclei undergo a nuclear reaction like the spontaneous emission of radioactivity, nuclear fission, or nuclear fusion Nuclear fission - nuclear change where the nuclei of certain isotopes with large mass #s are split apart into light nuclei when struck by a neutron; this releases more neutrons and lots of energy Nuclear fusion - nuclear change where two nuclei of isotopes of elements with a low mass # are forced together at very high temps until they fuse to form a heavier nucleus; releases lots of energy Oil sand - deposit of a mixture of clay, sand, water, and bitumen
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This note was uploaded on 02/23/2012 for the course ENSC 101 taught by Professor Gilligan during the Spring '12 term at Virginia Tech.

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Chapter 17 Study Guide - Mark Moeller 1/14/09 Period 3...

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