Optical concepts - Optical concepts Physical constants...

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Optical concepts

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Physical constants Constant Symbol Magnitude Avagadro's Number N A 6.023 x 10 23 molecules/mole Boltzmann's constant k 1.38 x 10 -23 J/K = 8.62 x 10 -5 eV/K Electronic charge q 1.6 x 10 -19 C Electron volt eV 1.6 x 10 -19 J Planks constant h 6.625 x 10 -34 J-s Thermal voltage at 300 o K Vt 25.8 mV Velocity of light c 3 x 10 10 cm/s Permeability of free space u o 1.257 x 10 -8 H/cm Permittivity of free space e o 8.854 x 10 -14 F/cm Free-electron mass m 9.1 x 10 -31 kg
Ray Tracing, Geometric Optics Light is a Ray! Scale Waves! Diffraction Interference Light as an Electromagnetic wave Polarization Some Diffraction, Interference Problems Intensity of reflection Light is a Vector Electromagnetic Wave E=hf, λ =h/p, C= λ f Creation and absorption of light Quantum Mechanics

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What picture to use? Ray tracing, geometric optics Light travels in a straight line. Follow the energy flow of the system. If polarized light threat each polarization separately Scalar Electromagnetic wave Diffraction, Interference. Phenomena dependent on the phase of the wave. Vector Electromagnetic Wave Polarization (including intensity of reflection) Fresnel equations. Near field diffraction Quantum Mechanics How light is created and absorbed, Stimulated, Spontaneous emission and absorption When dealing with very small numbers of photons
Connection between Particle and Wave E=hf and C= λ f Large energy, small wavelength particle (small number of photons) Small energy, Long wavelength wave 1 eV =1.24/ λ ( in microns) h= 6.625*10 -34 J*sec Q: How many photons in a 1 mW beam made of 3.1 eV (blue) photons? Q: How many photons in a 1 mW radio beam that has a frequency of 800 MHz?

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To understand spectrum of light from a black body. Must assume each photon has discrete energy. (otherwise ultraviolet catastrophe) Q: How do you make a black body radiator?
Most of the time we want to know how energy is transported from the emitter to the detector. All the pictures should agree…. Wave front = lines of constant phase

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Optical concepts - Optical concepts Physical constants...

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