EXAM_1_Study - Alexander Muhr HIST-104 DAY 1 Begin to THINK...

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Alexander Muhr 10/26/05 HIST-104 DAY 1: - Begin to THINK about CHANGE - Main Ideas o Reason, Toleration, Human Rights, Questioning o Conquest, Subjugation o Genocide o How do we define Europe? - “(Hu) Man is born free; and everywhere he is in chains.” – Rousseau - living free vs. living in society/state - Free = living unequally; people have inequalities everyone takes what they want and when they want it o You waste time and energy to defend yourself and your possessions - Society/State o Curbing NATURAL Instincts (desires, freedom) o Moral Code and system of Conduct! - SOCIAL CONTRACT o Giving up certain things (right to satisfy their every needs) and gain certain things (SECURITY, PEACE, and living in a society) o Swap “Absolute Freedom” with “CIVIL Freedom” (favors the group as a whole) - THE GENERAL WILL o Lies above all the differences between everyone; such as lawmakers work towards being truly “Free” - People can change at their CORE depending on their surroundings changing HUMAN Nature - SAVAGE people that have not been exposed to civilization; don’t live in the European state of Advancement - PARADOX: One person’s notion of freedom is another’s notion of repression. - The Sovereign (Monarch) is there not by divine intervention but there by POPULAR WILL - Using REASON Rational Analysis - RELIGION: move towards a tolerance of religion – need a combination of FAITH and REASON o Civil Religion any religion that has to be tolerant and not interfere with citizenship citizens need religion to be good citizens o Forces cohesion, creates control, and ethical orientation!! - PLATO cave allegory – people who live in a cave and most cannot go out, because the light is too harsh and they would be blinded; only a few can handle the light, and lead everyone else out of the cave ENLIGHTENMENT - PROPERTY: Right to Ownership – NOT God-Given DAY 2: - The Enlightenment and The World of the Old Regime o The Enlightenment Roots and influences Main themes o Europe in the 18 th Century Life in the Old Regime French developments - How are ideas passed around in the 18 th Century? o BOOKS $$ Upper Class (printing) anonymous writers – RADICAL ideas word of MOUTH – cafes, salons, loges PAMPHLETS – easy to make, cheap Newspapers!!
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Alexander Muhr 10/26/05 HIST-104 - Cities are growing and bringing people together to share and discuss ideas like never before!! - ROOTS of the Enlightenment o RELIGION: Growing climate of Religious PERSECUTION The Huguenots of France DIASPORA o SCIENCE: Experimentation, reason new technologies about looking and seeing EYE Apply to the HUMAN world! o TRAVEL Europeans looking at others and finding out DIFFERENCES EXPOSURE – makes them look at themselves SAVAGES Pre-Civilized State DAY 3: - VOLTAIRE Greek Philosophy/Democracy o Following in the footsteps of the classical thinkers o More practical application of ideas; Pursuit of PROGRESS - LOCKE: o You only know what you come to find out o
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