Chapter08 - Solutions for Chapter 8 End-of-Chapter Problems Problem 8.1(a Ice cream melting will decrease the organization of the system Rather

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March 2005 ACS Chemistry Chapter 8 suggested solutions 1 Solutions for Chapter 8 End-of-Chapter Problems Problem 8.1. (a) Ice cream melting will decrease the organization of the system. Rather than being in identifiable scoops of ice cream perched securely on a cone, there now will be liquid ice cream dripping on the outside of the cone, onto your hands, and possibly onto your clothes as well. (b) Students entering a classroom with fixed seating are about to undergo an increase in organization. The chairs are permanently arranged so that a specified order will be maintained. (c) A shrub forming spring flowers will be increasing the organization of the system as these new structures are formed. Complex molecules are being arranged into even more complex cells, which in turn are organized into new units of the shrub. (d) Obtaining pure water from seawater requires an increase in the organization of the system. Starting with the salt solution, water molecules are separated from the solution, leaving behind a more concentrated brine solution (or even the previously dissolved salts as crystalline solids). (e) Shuffling a new deck of cards decreases the organization of the deck as the ordered sequence of suits and values is mixed up. (f) Raking leaves into a single pile definitely represents an increase in organization, at least until the next puff of wind comes along. Problem 8.2. A water-soluble dye spreads out when it is mixed with water because the mixed state is more probable (see Section 8.3 for why it is more probable). We know from everyday life that the reverse process never happens, (because the unmixed final state would be less probable). Problem 8.3. (a) It is unlikely that liquid food coloring added to cookie dough will spontaneously disperse through the semisolid cookie dough in a finite amount of time, because the molecules within the dough are not free to translate from one part to another. If you do enough mixing and stirring, it will be possible to turn the entire sample of dough the desired green color, but this external input of mechanical mixing is necessary. (b) Drops of green food coloring are more easily mixed with a liquid than with cookie dough. The mixing starts as the drops are added to the liquid, and molecular motion in the liquid will enable the process to continue because all the molecules in the system are in constant translational motion without any external influence (although stirring will disperse the dye molecules more quickly). Problem 8.4. If an intravenous infusion having a higher concentration than the solution within the red blood cells was given, water from the blood cell would move out of the blood cell causing crenation (shriveling) of the cells. Problem 8.5. (a) Swimming in a freshwater lake makes your body water-logged and increases your need to urinate, because osmosis occurs to transfer water through your semipermeable cell membranes to your more concentrated body solutions from the fresh water.
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Entropy and Molecular Organization Chapter 8 2 ACS Chemistry
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Chapter08 - Solutions for Chapter 8 End-of-Chapter Problems Problem 8.1(a Ice cream melting will decrease the organization of the system Rather

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