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EPID 301 MIDTERM REVIEW WEEK 1 (Chap. 1-3) - Defining epidemiology o Study of the distribution, determinants, and deterrents of morbidity or mortality in human populations o Study PEOPLE, although may be through animal experimentation o Determine extent of disease in community o Identify associations and potential etiology of disease and risk factors for disease o Evaluate new preventive and therapeutic measures and new modes of health care delivery - Public health o Promoting health, preventing disease, prolonging life, improving quality of life through organized efforts of society => very political o Population health approach Considers entire range of individual and collective factors and conditions that have been shown to correlate with health status => determinants of health E.g. income, social status, education, social support, employment, physical & social environment, genetics, health practice, child development, gender, culture, etc. - Definitions: o Primary prevention: intervening to stop disease from occurring o Pre-clinical disease: undiagnosed WEEK 2 (Chap. 4-5) - o Concepts of disease and health WHO def n “the extent to which an individual or a group is able to realize aspirations and satisfy needs, and to change or cope with the environment. Health is a resource for everyday life, not the objective of living; it is a positive concept, emphasizing social and personal resources as well as physical capabilities.” Disease A physiological or psychological dysfunction Not all diseases are easily diagnosed (e.g. schizophrenia, alzeimer’s) Illness Subjective state of a person who is aware he/she is unwell Dependent on individual perception of health Sickness A state of social dysfunction (disorder, disease, syndrome) Difference from disease
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Outcomes All identified changes in health status arising as a consequence of the handling of a health problem Classes of disease Communicable ( infectious ) disease: illness due to specific infectious agent or its toxic products o e.g. through bacteria, virus, fungi, etc. o food born, air born diseases Non-communicable ( non-infectious ) disease: illness that cannot be transmitted to others directly or indirectly o generic diseases o Disease models Epidemiology Triangle or Ecological Model Single cause/single effect models Better suited to explanations of infectious diseases/acute events Host: intrinsic characteristics o e.g. immunological status, genetic make-up, diet, gender, social economic status (SES) Agent: hazards that induce disease o e.g. infectious disease, mosquitos, parasites o noise? chemicals? <= could also be environment Environment: extrinsic characteristics affecting exposure to or effectiveness of the agent, or host susceptibility o e.g. workplace, weather conditions, living conditions, sanitation Holistic Models Go beyond ecological model but does not
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This note was uploaded on 02/23/2012 for the course EPID 301 taught by Professor Richardson&aronson during the Spring '09 term at Queens University.

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