Soil Study Guide

Soil Study Guide - Soil Study Guide Paleolithic: Began...

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Soil Study Guide Paleolithic : Began control over environment Neolithic : Agricultural transformation, seed storage (revolutionary), water control, etc. Mesopotamia : “Fertile Crescent” cradle of civilization Desertification : Spreading of desert-like conditions Soil is an integrator: integrates all parts of ecosystem. crop production, exchanges gases, plant growth, home to organisms, waste decomposer Soil: Thin, unconsolidated material at the earth’s surface that has been subjected to and influenced by genetic and environmental factors Pedon: Hexagonal 3D unit (hexagon so can link em together into polypedons ) 2 ways to look at soil: A. Pedological : Natural entity, origin, classification of biochemically weathered and synthesized product of nature B. Edaphological : Natural body for the support of higher plants, plant production in context of the “world” Idealized Soil: -50 percent solid a. 45 percent mineral b. 5 percent organic matter -50 percent voids a. 25 percent air b. 25 percent solution (water, etc) -We use a process analysis of soil -Testable -Soil is a system Natural system: complex, self-organizing (change environmental to suit survival), dynamic, dissipative (maximize use of energy), adaptive - System Science : A. State Variable: “Snapshot in time,” description of current condition B. Rate Variable: Quantity per unit time C. Feedback: Control interaction i. Negative feedback: homeostatic response (trying to maintain homeostasis)
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ii. Positive feedback: Runaway situation D. Resistance: Measure of a system’s response to disturbance (amplitude of change, how far out of whack the system got) E. Resilience: Time it takes for system to return back to initial state
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Buffering Capacity: The ability of some entity to withstand a rapid change Ecosystem includes: Organisms, transfers of energy, boundaries, abiotic factors, transfers of material -Biological and nonbiological parts, parts must interact w energy and materials, system must have boundaries Fertility: Ability to supply nutrients to growing plants, plants rely on soil for water, oxygen and physical support Soil pedosphere: links other spheres of Earth Soil is a mix of mineral, organic solids, liquids, gases Mineral soils came from metamorphic, igneous or sedimentary rocks Weathering: Chemical, physical, geological and biological decomposition of rocks into smaller pieces -Physical weathering most prominent in cold/dry climates and climates with extreme temperature variation -Smaller rocks have bigger surface areas and chemical activity -Agents: **Water, ice, glaciers, wind, organisms, other rocks Types: a. Exfoliation : Outer layers of rock peel away b. Abrasion : By water, wind and ice -Chemical weathering most prominent in hot/humid environments -For every 10 degree increase in temp, reaction rate doubles
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-Agents: Temperature, water, oxygen, carbon dioxide, organisms (organic acid production -Types a. Dissolution: Breakdown of rocks into minerals typically involving water, split anions and cations
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This note was uploaded on 02/23/2012 for the course SCI 240 taught by Professor Balster during the Spring '12 term at Wisconsin.

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Soil Study Guide - Soil Study Guide Paleolithic: Began...

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