co-1 - Computer Organization It describes the function and...

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Computer Organization It describes the function and design of the various units of digital computers that store and process information. It also deals with the units of computer that receive information from external sources and send computed results to external destinations
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“Computer Organization” and “Computer Architecture” are the terms used in describing digital computer systems. Computer architecture deals with the instruction sets, address fields, operation codes, addressing modes, effective utilization of I/O mechanisms and such other aspects which would interest the users of computers. Computer organization include hardware details such as generation of control signals, interface between the computer and peripherals, memory technologies used, modular design, flow of data, control mechanisms and so on. In brief, a programmer is generally more concerned about the architectural features and a designer of computer systems is more concerned about the organizational aspects.
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Computer types Digital computer : It is a fast electronic calculating machine that accepts digitized input information, processes it according to a list of internally stored instructions, and produces the resulting output information. (1) Personal computer : It is the most common form of desktop computers . Desk top computers have processing and storage units, visual display and audio output units, and a keyboard that can all be located easily on a home or office desk. The storage media include hard disks, CD-ROMs and diskettes. Portable notebook computers are a compact version of the personal computers with all of these components packaged into single unit the size of a thin briefcase
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Computer types (contd.,) (2) Workstations : Work stations with high resolution graphics input/output capability, although still retaining the dimensions of desktop computers, have significantly more computational power than personal computers. Workstations are often used in engineering applications, especially for interactive design works. (3) Enterprise systems or mainframes : These are used for business data processing in medium to large corporations that require much more computing power and storage capacity than workstations can provide.
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Computer types (contd.,) 4) Servers : Servers contain sizable database storage units and are capable of handling large volumes of requests to access the data. The Internet and its associated servers have become a dominant world wide source of all types of information. 5) Super Computers : Super Computers are used for the large scale numerical calculations required in applications such as weather forecasting, aircraft design and simulation.
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Functional units A computer consists of five functionally independent main parts: Input unit Memory unit Arithmetic and logic unit (ALU) Output unit Control unit The structure of a digital computer is shown below
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I / O EQUIP- MENT MAIN MEMORY ALU CONTROL UNIT
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co-1 - Computer Organization It describes the function and...

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